Données sociales : La société française - 2006 ed.
The professional mobility of immigrant labourers and white-collar workers
Between 1990 and 1999, the chances of promotion amongst white-collar workers and labourers were lower for immigrants than for non-immigrants. For women, these chances were lower in all types of employment; for men, the difference was only noticeable amongst unskilled white-collar workers and skilled labourers. Amongst the unskilled labourers, immigrant men had even more chances of being promoted. One in four skilled immigrant labourers or white-collar workers had experienced a professional setback. The immigrant's country of origin did not influence their chances of promotion, but their chances were higher if they had arrived in France before the age of ten. Finally, immigrant white-collar workers and labourers, notably those originating from Turkey, Asia or Tunisia, set up their own business more often than non-immigrants, particularly in the construction and hotel-catering industries.