Courrier des statistiques N3 - 2019
Internet Business Data Collection: INSEE Enters the Coltrane Era
The collection of business surveys is increasingly focusing on the Internet. However, in the French Official Statistical System, the offer was protean. The Coltrane project was developed in a modular way in order to bring technical and functional coherence to what was scattered. The data collection platform resulting from the project thus not only replaced four previous collection systems, but was also the first link in a new INSEE network based on active metadata. Thus, based on the designer’s description of the questionnaire, different collection media are automatically generated and integrated into an Internet collection infrastructure. Coltrane is today more than just a simple collection platform : it is a complete service offer that allows survey designers to collect responses via the Internet, to access and manage a repository of contacts within businesses, to send letters, emails and paper questionnaires to companies that are interested, while having a dedicated support system. Coltrane also represents a significant step forward for enterprises, which can now better identify and respond to most of the surveys sent to them by official statistics thanks to a single “login/password” couple, according to a common ergonomic framework.
- Simplifying Business Surveys and Harmonising Designer Tools
- A New Logical Pathway Based on Active Metadata
- Gradual Development, Based on Full-Scale Operations
- Coltrane Today? At the Borderline Between Businesses and Statisticians
- Services for the Surveyed Businesses
- Innovative Tools for Survey Designers
- A Module to Manage Mail to Businesses
- Encouraging Responses from Businesses by Sending a Letter in Advance
- An Internal Application to Manage Contacts
- Almost a Million Questionnaires Achieved
- Collection Today: A Business in Itself
- Soon to be Applied to Household Surveys?
- Required Developments
Simplifying Business Surveys and Harmonising Designer Tools
In 2000, SESSI, which was the Ministry of Industry’s Statistical Department at that time, started collecting data from businesses via the internet with its monthly branch survey, before extending it to other surveys in the industrial sector. With the merger of part of SESSI and INSEE in 2008, the data collection infrastructure became the property of INSEE. INSEE already had its own system, since 2004, for a dozen frequent and regular business surveys. Gradually, the rapid spread of the internet within businesses and the desire to reduce collection costs have encouraged other producer services, from INSEE or ministerial statistical departments, to digitise their questionnaires. By seeking to respond as quickly as possible to the aspirations of producers and the pressing demand of businesses, we ended up with a juxtaposition of heterogeneous tools. This situation led INSEE to seek to reduce the number of web data collection infrastructures (see the article by Jean-Marc Béguin on the emergence of innovation in statistical production) in order to facilitate responses from businesses, while also reducing the IT maintenance costs of the various platforms.
At the same time, during the French national conferences on administrative simplification in April 2011, businesses raised their difficulties with regard to the statistical burden. Among the 80 measures resulting from these conferences was the objective of “Digitising 100% of Official Statistical Surveys” and centralising questionnaires on a single site from 2013. Everyone agreed – and the business interviews confirmed this – that this method of responding was less expensive for businesses than using paper questionnaires. At that time, the availability of data collection by internet was still insufficient: the surveys for which it was technically possible represented 73% of the volume of questionnaires sent by INSEE to businesses, but only 51% of the surveys of the entire Official Statistical System. Therefore, the aim was less to reduce the statistical burden in the traditional sense of the term (“reduce the volume of surveys”) than to reduce the response burden by simplifying collection systems for businesses.
This was the context in which the Coltrane (COLlecte TRANsversale d’Enquêtes – Transversal Collection of Surveys) project was started in 2010. Its main objectives were to:
- develop a “technical platform” for multimodal data collection;
- provide respondents and INSEE survey managers, or even the Official Statistical System, with a set of functions that meet their needs (authentication of businesses on the platform, management hub for survey managers, etc.);
- provide a usage instructions for integrating surveys on that platform;
- provide a contact management infrastructure.
The project already had a broad scope in terms of its schedule. Its original objectives did not include being able to meet the needs of household surveys (or the population census). However, the idea remained that all potentially common functions between the two data collection areas developed during the project should eventually be shared.
A New Logical Pathway Based on Active Metadata
One particular feature sets Coltrane apart from existing platforms (Saraiva et alii, 2016; Ouvrir dans un nouvel ongletFazio et alii, 2015; Ouvrir dans un nouvel ongletThieme et alii, 2015): this feature is the close links that it has had, from the outset, with the RMéS statistical metadata repository project (Bonnans, 2019) and, in particular, the stated objective of using the metadata that describe the surveys questionnaires to directly generate the collection tools, hence the term “active” metadata to describe the system.
INSEE has adopted the GSBPM to model its statistical processes and the DDI standard (Ouvrir dans un nouvel ongletData Documentation Initiative) to formally describe the life cycle of the data, in particular the “questionnaire” objects. This structural choice made it impossible to use one of the collection software packages on the market, as they were not yet adapted to these standards.
The automatic generation of collection media, i.e. of the screens and programs that allow responses to be retrieved, based on their DDI description, forms the basis for the expected productivity gains. It was initially developed as part of a Coltrane sub-project called Eno (see the article on the Eno generator by Heïdi Koumarianos and Éric Sigaud). The Eno generator makes it possible, based on the specification of the questionnaire, to automate tasks previously carried out manually: development of the collection medium by a computer engineer and then testing and acceptance by the statistician; it makes it possible to ensure that several different collection methods (including paper) correspond to the same general description. Therefore, unlike in the past, the designer no longer makes the same number of specifications as there are types of collection media. A single specification is sufficient and it guarantees the homogeneity of the questioning whatever the method.
Initiated with Coltrane and its sub-project Eno, the activation of metadata for collection has been enhanced with the Pogues tool (see the article on the Pogues tool by Franck Cotton and Thomas Dubois), which enables the statistician to design the questionnaire template and to generate the template in DDI automatically, without using an expert in that standard.
Gradual Development, Based on Full-Scale Operations
At present, the Pogues/Eno/Coltrane system seeks to place the user-designer at the centre of the process. For Coltrane, it was decided from the outset to opt for modular development, with the successive production of “operations”. An operation was a complete and coherent functional unit, for which an application was delivered in production and was the subject of complete acceptance by a group of users. The introduction of an operation into production required the collection of a pilot internet survey with a set of functionalities (sometimes version specific) which could then be used for subsequent pilot surveys.
Three operations were launched during the first phase of the project, during which it was planned to develop all of the functions originally planned.
- In February 2013, the first step was to carry out the online collection for the Structural Business Statistics (enquête sectorielle annuelle, or ESA), via a deposit and withdrawal system for a questionnaire in “fillable PDF” format. This operation, which was not originally planned, was developed as a priority to meet the expectations of the simplification conferences (see above). It made it possible to send a strong signal by digitising the survey with the largest sample; it was also the survey that, due to its size, affected the most SMEs, which were the most sensitive to the collection burden.
- The second step, in June 2013, was the online launch of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). This was, in fact, the first time Coltrane’s technical infrastructure had been used in the format in question (“online” questionnaire populated by and populating an XML file).
- However, we were still following a purely INSEE logic, and in a third step (March 2015), the objective was to equip a survey of a statistical office outside of INSEE, in this case the DARES and the quarterly ACEMO survey (which had been all paper until then), as well as the addition of new functions compared to the previous operation.
The second phase, also known as the generalisation or “mass integration” phase, began in September 2016. Once most of the components of the Coltrane service offer had been developed, it consisted of gradually transferring the thirty or so INSEE surveys into the system, especially those that used the old SESSI infrastructure (such as the Monthly Industry Surveys [Enquêtes Mensuelles de Branche, or EMB]).
The start of this second phase was more difficult than initially planned. In fact, the integration of the first surveys revealed weaknesses in the collection platform. In order to resolve them, it was necessary to optimise certain developments and strengthen the collection infrastructure in production so as to be sure that it would be able to support the expected burden once up and running. The mass integration of the surveys into the system was therefore carried out within the planned schedule, but at that time the platform did not offer all the functions envisaged during the project.
Coltrane Today? At the Borderline Between Businesses and Statisticians
The platform provides services to survey designers during the Build phase of the collection media. Coltrane sends the responses collected via the platform, in a standard format, to the survey management applications (Figure 1). In order to avoid “discouraging” respondents, few consistency or partial non-response checks are implemented in Coltrane. This lack of obstructive checks also makes it possible to assume that Coltrane does not currently induce any trend due to internet collection compared to “paper” collection.
The surveys edit tools, which are outside Coltrane’s functional scope, make it possible to monitor the collection, in particular to identify non-responding units to be reactivated, to control the quality of responses and to adjust them if necessary. Therefore, through management applications, Coltrane also provides services to survey management teams during the Collection phases. We will see further how Coltrane directly equips the survey clerks in contact with the businesses.
However, the first users of Coltrane are, in fact, the businesses responding to the surveys hosted on the platform.
Figure 1. Coltrane, on the Borderline Between Statisticians and Businesses
Services for the Surveyed Businesses
When it is selected for the sample, the surveyed business receives a letter (or even an email) notifying it that it has been selected to answer a questionnaire. This letter, in addition to providing a brief presentation of the survey, contains the elements required to connect to the platform: link to open, username and password assigned to the natural person who will answer the survey and who is called the “Contact”, so that:
- a surveyed unit has at least one Contact (whose first and last names may not be known at the start of the survey) and may have several Contacts;
- a single Contact can be associated with several surveyed units;
- the Contact need not be part of the surveyed business but may be appointed for this purpose, for example an accountant who answers surveys for their clients.
On first accessing the authentication portal (Figure 2), the Contact must personalise their password. In case of loss of the password, the Contact can request a new one online. The authentication portal uses a shared identification service, developed outside the project.
Once authenticated, the Contact is directed to a response portal (Figure 2) and, more specifically, to a tab named “Mes enquêtes” (“My Surveys”), a single access point for responding to all surveys managed by Coltrane (surveys from INSEE or any ministerial statistical office that has adopted Coltrane):
- it displays the surveys being collected for which the Contact has a right to respond, together with the desired return dates, or even the response dates if the questionnaire has already been completed;
- the Contact accesses the questionnaire they select from the list of surveys, either to respond to the survey or to view the questionnaires or answers already entered, until the collection period has closed.
Figure 2. What the Surveyed Business Views with the Coltrane Platform
When a Contact navigates through a questionnaire, their answers are automatically recorded each time the page is changed. In this way, the Contact can leave the questionnaire at any time and return to it whenever they wish: the Contact is then given the option of returning directly to the last page viewed or starting over from the beginning. On reaching the end of the survey, the Contact can choose to send their response or simply save it to return to it later. At the time of sending, the Contact is given the option of downloading a summary of their response in “PDF” format.
From the response portal, the Contact can of course enter or update their personal information (first name, last name, email address, telephone number, position, postal address, etc.) using the “Mon compte” (“My Account”) tab. The Contact may also personalise their password and, in particular, if the Contact has received multiple usernames (one per survey, for example), they can “group them together” and have a single account to access and respond to questionnaires for several surveyed units or several surveys. On a practical level, this is a great advantage of the portal.
Throughout their navigation on the collection platform, the Contact within the business may access frequently asked questions and online assistance via a form. This assistance is contextualised, i.e. depending on where the form comes from, it is pre-completed to a greater or lesser extent and can be sent to two types of stakeholders:
- the INSEE-Contact hubs, for “technical” issues (how to access the collection platform, the reality of the survey, objectives, lost access code, etc.);
- the survey manager teams, for “business” issues directly related to the survey.
This set of services offered through Coltrane ultimately makes it possible to improve the image of official statistics, particularly for large companies that receive a significant number of statistical survey questionnaires. First, their learning curve for completing questionnaires and navigating the collection platform are reduced. Second, they may be encouraged to respond to surveys that are in progress and that they had forgotten about.
While there has been no significant increase in response rates since the introduction of Coltrane, the system at least makes it possible to maintain the existing rates at fairly high levels.
In addition to the portals intended for the surveyed businesses, the Coltrane project has established several tools for survey designers to facilitate the creation of collection media, on the one hand, and to manage the collection itself, on the other.
Innovative Tools for Survey Designers
The Eno collection media generator was developed as part of the Coltrane project. The project team also made a significant contribution to the establishment of Pogues (see the article by Franck Cotton and Thomas Dubois), a tool for designing the DDI questionnaire template. Using these tools, the statistician designs the questionnaire template and views it in a “blank” and non-personalised version, and approves the final version.
They must then use the management application for their survey to provide the Coltrane platform with the survey sample and its characteristics (in XML format). For each surveyed unit, this so-called “personalisation” file contains:
- all of the identification data for the selected businesses (unit username, company name, etc.);
- possibly contacts: contact username if it already exists in Coltrane and if they want to share it with other survey managers, address, first name, last name, position, telephone number, email address, etc.);
- and other data relevant to collection: responses from the surveyed unit from a previous collection campaign, if available.
Coltrane generates and hosts all the web questionnaires for the units to be surveyed, based on the blank, non-personalised questionnaire template provided by Eno and the personalisation file provided by the external survey management application. At the start of the collection period, Coltrane therefore generated the same number of blank (but personalised) questionnaires as there were units to survey.
Once the collection period for a survey is open, Coltrane extracts the responses that have been collected since the previous extraction, with the frequency chosen by the survey manager (in practice, up to 4 times a day) then sends them (in XML format) to the survey edit tool. Some survey managers have also chosen to retrieve the “proof of submission” PDF files.
In contrast, Coltrane does not offer a post-collection response archiving service. The responses of the surveyed units are only stored on the platform for three months after the end of the collection period; this allows survey clerks to access the raw data throughout the entire data validation phase. They are then deleted, with the onus on the survey manager to save them in their own environment, where necessary.
A Module to Manage Mail to Businesses
To successfully carry out the collection for a survey, it is essential to contact the businesses regularly, to remind them of their obligation to respond to labelled official statistical surveys, for example. Usually, there are four letter templates: start of the collection period, reminder, formal notice and non-response report. Coltrane also provides a letter template for additions to the panel and another to thank outgoing panellists.
During the Coltrane project, INSEE developed a module to create “ready-to-print” letters. This “Mail Module” is now available for any other application with similar needs. For surveys collected using Coltrane:
- the generic part of these letters has been standardised and approved by the Official Statistics Quality Label Committee;
- the content specific to each survey (name of the survey, objective, etc.) is composed using metadata stored in the Coltrane databases and populated by the survey designer, in accordance with the principle of active metadata already mentioned.
As before, Coltrane relies on an XML personalisation file (list and personalisation elements of the units for which the letter must be sent, type of letter) provided by the survey management application, to produce a file that it then sends to the Mail Module.
The Mail Module uses the templates (start of the collection period, for example) and the Coltrane file to edit personalised letters in PDF format, as well as information useful for managing the sending of the letters.
However, Coltrane is not a generic collection management tool. Thus:
- it is always the survey management application that indicates the type of letter to be created and the list of units concerned;
- Coltrane’s service only concerns so-called mass mailings. It does not allow the sending of a specific or one-off letter from a manager to a particular surveyed unit.
The letters may be accompanied by a paper questionnaire, depending on the collection strategy adopted. Experience shows, for example, that to increase the internet response rate, it is preferable not to include a paper questionnaire at the start of the collection period: the internet response rate for the ACEMO survey thus increased from 20% to 80% in the year when the DARES decided to no longer send a “paper” questionnaire in the initial mailing. In contrast, it is preferable to send a paper questionnaire at the time of formal notice to avoid any later response by the business. It must also be possible to send a paper questionnaire when the respondent requests. To do so, the procedure is the same as for a usual letter, except that the template shown in the Mail Module is generated by Eno, as was the web collection medium. Coltrane will kind of “direct mail” the questionnaire template.
Encouraging Responses from Businesses by Sending a Letter in Advance
At the start of the collection periods or at the time of reminders, Coltrane also makes it possible to supplement the sending of a letter with an email, for those contacts with an email address, requesting that they respond to the survey.
The logic is the same as for sending letters: using pre-defined letter templates and an XML personalisation file provided by the survey management application, Coltrane generates a message that is distributed via an INSEE automatic email sending tool. This message includes information on the survey concerned (name, objectives, expected return date, etc.), extracts from legal texts relating to the surveys and, above all, the link to access the authentication portal, a reminder of the contact’s username and a forgotten password link, so as to reduce assistance requests.
By convention, the sender of these emails is the collection office for the survey, which allows the respondent to have easy access to assistance.
In addition, in less than a year it will also be possible to send the questionnaire in PDF format by email to a business that so wishes.
This service offer will, of course, be all the more effective if the survey project manager has an up-to-date contact database containing as many valid email addresses as possible (invalid email addresses are also reported to the survey designers who use the “email sending” service).
An Internal Application to Manage Contacts
Coltrane is more than just a user-friendly collection platform that facilitates the work of survey designers. It is also a contact repository that will be used by survey clerks who process responses and are in contact with surveyed businesses.
To that end, when a survey is integrated into the system, Coltrane imports massively the survey contacts already known (in particular when internet collection was already in use). Then, in order to bring this repository to life, the survey clerks use a “Contact Management” application: to create a contact, to amend its characteristics, to give the contact the right to respond to a survey or withdraw that right, etc. In addition, updates to the contact’s details, made by the respondents directly (via the “My Account” section of the Coltrane interface) are recorded in real time in this repository.
When a clerk amends a characteristic of a contact responding to several surveys, the managers of the other surveys are notified by email. The application is also accessible through the INSEE-Contact hubs to assist the respondent (loss of access code, for example).
Furthermore, the clerks of a survey can view the questionnaires of their respondents regardless of their status (already sent to INSEE or not). In particular, this makes it possible to help businesses that have difficulty answering or to verify the sending or simply the saving of a questionnaire.
Almost a Million Questionnaires Achieved
In 2019, Coltrane was up and running with the integration of all business surveys carried out by INSEE (with the exception of those collected through the deposit/withdrawal of questionnaires) and by the DARES, offering collection via the internet. The number of surveys carried out using this system has increased steadily over the years.
The objective is to maximise the use of Coltrane for Official Statistical System surveys, so that businesses that respond to multiple surveys need use only one infrastructure. If this is achieved, more than a million questionnaires will be processed using Coltrane annually. In 2019, 900,000 questionnaires will have been accessible on the platform (Figure 3) and the figure of 500,000 returned questionnaires should be achieved for the first time. In addition, since 2015, more than 615,000 contacts have been registered in the repository.
Figure 3. Number of Questionnaires Offered on Coltrane since 2017 by Survey Type
This significant volume creates robustness requirements on the site, the activity of which is not uniform throughout the year, or even during a day (Figure 4 shows daily collection peaks in the late morning and late afternoon).
Figure 4. Maximum Number of Connections Per Hour Between 08:00 and 19:00 in 2019 on the Coltrane Website
Reading note: in 2019, up to 1400 connections were recorded between 11:00 and 12:00 on the Coltrane response portal. This is also the highest number ever achieved in one hour in one day in 2019.
Collection Today: A Business in Itself
The implementation of Coltrane has resulted in the industrialisation, pooling and professionalisation of collection.
The Eno generator provides standardised media, implementing the rules of best practice for internet questionnaires (Ouvrir dans un nouvel ongletMorrison, 2010; Snijkers, 2013; Dillman 2014). These rules are managed at INSEE by a specialised unit within the Methodology Directorate, which monitors these subjects internationally. This work makes it possible to have collection media that meet the standards in force for both paper and online media. It therefore leads to a homogenisation of practices and of the ergonomics of the media for the users of this system.
Collection is thus more robust, as this specialisation makes it possible to learn more from experience and to better understand the collection method effects or the possible impacts of the ergonomics on responses.
However, this standardisation is sometimes not well received by some designers who view this requirement as a reduction in their room for manoeuvre, in terms of questionnaire design or question formulation. In fact, the standardisation imposed by this new system often leads to the abandonment of old formatting choices, which allowed space savings and a reduction in the costs associated with mass mailing in paper format, but were not always accompanied by the required legibility.
To help them enter this new approach, the designers are guided by documentation presenting the possibilities of the Eno generator, best practices in internet questionnaires and a questionnaire creation protocol. In addition, they are supported in their journey by experts specialising in the profession of collection. Thanks to the services offered by the Mail Module, they also avoid the often tedious task of designing accompanying letters.
Ultimately, this makes it possible to offer more homogeneous collection media and consistent letters; a service that renders the questionnaires more accessible to respondents. The selection of common ergonomics is also a major asset for more easily identifying questionnaires as coming from the official statistics body.
This sharing is only a first step. There is another project in progress, aimed at standardising management applications for thematic surveys and sharing post-collection edit tools. It fits directly within the Pogues/Eno/Coltrane system and will complete the task of limiting the burden on the designer of describing the questionnaire: the same occurrence will be common to all phases of the survey, from Collection to Processing, in the sense of the GSBPM.
Soon to be Applied to Household Surveys?
The Coltrane platform is dedicated to business surveys, which have their own specific characteristics. However, its application to household surveys is not necessarily a given (see the article by Jean-Marc Béguin on the emergence of innovation in statistical production). Nevertheless, the modular nature of Coltrane and the fact that these modules are now proven through years of use makes it possible to envisage some form of reuse, even if only partial. Thus, as part of INSEE’s work on the multimodal collection of household surveys, it is envisaged that the “collection by internet” portion will be carried out through a dedicated portal, and that this portal will reuse a significant number of investments already made for Coltrane. This will not only make it possible to pool, and therefore reduce, the maintenance resources of both applications, thereby increasing flexibility, but also, given the strategic importance, to give people specialist training on the technologies used and thus secure the entire INSEE digitised collection process.
Coltrane could also benefit, symmetrically, from developments made for this “household” portal and thus increase its service offer. In particular, the work on responsive design, which was taken into account by Coltrane in 2019, or the work on the public site promoting household surveys, the principle of which could be adapted to the needs of business surveys, are worthy of mention.
In addition to the potential for sharing, eventually, with household surveys, other functions are being examined in order to further improve the services offered to respondents and designers.
For businesses, the team is examining a tool to help codification or self-completion. This concerns the questions asked to businesses that must lead to the selection of a code in a classification, sometimes with very many modalities (such as NACE, for example). Currently, the contact of the surveyed unit enters a label, which is then coded in the survey management application (therefore, outside Coltrane). An online codification support tool would be able to facilitate the response to this type of question.
Firstly, the implementation of self-completion to enter the commune code in the contact address is envisaged. To apply it to a questionnaire, it will first be necessary to measure the collection mode effect it generates, so as to be able to correct it. At present, in the absence of input assistance and obstructive checks in a response portal, the hypothesis that there is no impact by the collection mode between an internet questionnaire and a paper questionnaire seems plausible (although it has not been formally tested). However, with the implementation of the self-completion process, this hypothesis fails as this tool is being developed with the hope of improving (and therefore modifying) response quality.
A second area to help with input is envisaged for responding to tables containing a significant number of boxes (the value of which is taken from the business’s information system, incidentally). In this case, the idea would be to propose importing a file rather than entering each box in the table. For large businesses that are systematically surveyed and for repeated surveys, writing a small program to make it possible to produce the file in question would most likely be profitable.
For designers, new functions associated with collection management will be proposed to survey managers in order to make them even more autonomous. Thus, a new interface will be developed so that they are able to enter the metadata required to generate and use the collection media (name and objectives of the survey and start, expected return and end dates for the campaign), metadata which manage the display of data in the response portal themselves without having to use Coltrane’s maintenance teams. These functions will be opened up to designers outside INSEE.
These developments are all the more important as the Coltrane platform is now the standard for internet business surveys. It is thus imposed on designers, so it is logical that in return for this constraint, Coltrane facilitates their work through a sufficiently broad range of services.
Paru le :22/06/2021
SESSI: Office of Industrial Studies and Statistics. The collection platform was called sessi.fr.
CRPI: Collecte et Retour Par Internet [Internet Collection and Return].
Essentially, business surveys conducted by the Economic Studies and National Accounts Directorate (Business Outlook Surveys) and the Business Statistics Directorate (monthly Tourist Occupancy Surveys).
The statistical burden, in other words the burden of responding to surveys, was deemed the second-most costly challenge for small and medium-sized enterprises (another being the instability and complexity of regulations).
See Ouvrir dans un nouvel onglethttps://archives.entreprises.gouv.fr/2012/www.pme.gouv.fr/simplification/80-mesures.html and, in particular, measure No12 “Digitise Official Statistical Surveys”.
List and sequence of questions, possible ways of answering them, entry controls, filters, etc.
The Generic Statistical Business Process Model.
French Ministry of Labour Statistical Department (DARES: Research, Studies and Statistics Directorate).
In the sense of the GSBPM.
See the business survey page on INSEE's website at https://www.insee.fr/fr/information/1401986 and the specific homepage for the Coltrane platform: Ouvrir dans un nouvel onglethttps://entreprises.stat-publique.fr/.
For certain surveys, such as the EAP (Enquête Annuelle de Production – Annual Output Survey) or the EMB (Enquête Mensuelle de Branche – Monthly Branch Survey), the Contact also has the option, during the collection period, of correcting and resending a questionnaire already sent, at the request of the collection manager.
The INSEE office that responds to requests for information, whether in relation to dissemination products or ongoing statistical operations, spread over two centres located in Rouen and Strasbourg. Requests are received by email, mail or telephone.
The visual identity has also benefited from an effort to harmonise the presentation of the questionnaires. In this respect, see also the article on Eno by Heïdi Koumarianos and Éric Sigaud in this issue.
This application is outside the Coltrane project and is currently different for each survey. It is the responsibility of each survey project manager and makes it possible to manage collection and control the responses to the questionnaires.
On its website, Ouvrir dans un nouvel onglethttps://www.comite-du-label.fr/, the Committee thus offers cartridge templates to be used in questionnaires to inform the surveyed businesses of the regulatory conditions relating to the obligation to respond.
At INSEE, the “publishing” team is responsible for the mass printing and sending of paper documents.
It is also a form of digitised collection, but the logic is different: the deposit and withdrawal system enables the business to securely send to INSEE data already existing in the form of files within the business without having to re-enter them.
Due to the frequency of some surveys.
Responsive design automatically adjusts the display of a webpage to the screen size of the terminal used. This website, or digital interface design technique, responds to the need of users who are increasingly connecting to the internet using a mobile device (phone, tablet, etc.).
Cette application est en dehors du projet Coltrane et différente pour chaque enquête aujourd’hui. Elle est de la responsabilité de chaque maîtrise d’ouvrage d’enquête et permet de gérer la collecte et de contrôler les réponses aux questionnaires.
Le comité propose ainsi sur son site https://www.comite-du-label.fr/ des modèles de cartouche à utiliser sur les questionnaires pour informer les entreprises enquêtées des conditions réglementaires de l’obligation de réponse.
À l’Insee, l’équipe « éditique » est en charge de l’impression et de l’envoi des documents papier en masse.
Il s’agit également d’une collecte dématérialisée mais la logique est différente : le dépôt retrait permet à l’entreprise d’envoyer à l’Insee de façon sécurisée des données déjà existantes sous forme de fichiers dans l’entreprise sans avoir à les ressaisir.
En raison de la fréquence de certaines enquêtes.
Voir l’article de Jean-Marc Béguin dans ce même numéro sur la naissance d’une innovation en production statistique.
Le responsive design ajuste automatiquement l’affichage d’une page web à la taille d’écran du terminal utilisé. Cette technique de conception de site web, ou d’interface digitale, répond à un besoin des utilisateurs, toujours plus nombreux à se connecter sur le web depuis un appareil mobile (téléphone, tablette, etc.).
Pour en savoir plus
BONNANS, Dominique, 2019. RMéS: INSEE’s Statistical Metadata Repository. In : Courrier des statistiques. [en ligne]. 27 juin 2019. N°N2, pp. 46-55. [Consulté le 5 novembre 2019]
DILLMAN, Don A., SMYTH, Jolene D., CHRISTIAN Leah M., 2014. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. Août 2014. Éditions Wiley, collection Evaluation & Research Methods, 4e édition. ISBN 978-1-118-45614-9
FAZIO, Natale Renato et MOTTURA, Giulia, 2015. Ouvrir dans un nouvel ongletThe Business Portal – an integrated system to collect data and communicate. Workshop on Statistical Data Collection: Riding the Data Deluge. [en ligne]. 29 avril-1er mai 2015. Washington, USA. [Consulté le 5 novembre 2019]
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