Économie et Statistique n° 464-465-466 - 2013Inequalities and Discriminations: measurement issues - Indirect approaches: discrimination as an unexplained component of inequalities - Experimental approach: the contribution of testing - Subjective approaches: measuring felt discriminations
Schooling of descendants of immigrants, and feelings of injustice and discrimination
Educational inequalities and the feeling of injustice and discrimination at school (in terms of guidance, marking, discipline and punishment, and in verbal interactions) are related to the migratory origin. This study of school careers reveals that several groups of descendants of immigrants (Algeria, Turkey, Morocco and Tunisia, Sahelian Africa and central and Guinean Africa) are overrepresented among people with no secondary school qualifications and underrepresented among those with the baccalaureate. For most of the groups, these inequalities recede when the parents' social position and educational level are taken into account. In terms of perception of the four dimensions studied, school guidance is the aspect most often perceived as unfair by descendants of immigrants (15%). Without being a generalised experience, guidance is felt to be unfair by one descendant of Algerian immigrants out of five. This proportion is one out of four among descendants of Turkish, Moroccan, Tunisian and central African immigrants. However, this dimension is rarely citied by descendants of immigrants from Europe or South-East Asia. School injustices are frequently ascribed to ethno-racial discriminatory factors: among those who report injustices, 58% associate it with their origin or nationality and 13% with their skin colour; two thirds of descendants of immigrants from North Africa cite origin or nationality (65% among those from Turkey); skin colour is indicated by 56% of descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa. Confidence in the school system nonetheless remains high both in the population as a whole (87%) and among descendants of immigrants (86%), although it does weaken in the groups in which discrimination is felt most strongly.