Économie et Statistique n° 478-479-480Social and fiscal measures for families - Link between diploma and professional integration - Dossier: Time Use survey
House-keeping and parenting time of men and women: what factors have driven change over the past 25 years?
Over the last decades, household organisation has been affected by major changes, such as the increase in women on the job market and the level of education, or the decrease in family size. This article analyses the way in which the house-keeping and parenting time of men and women have been modified by these transformations since 1985. It studies the changes in averages and distributions of these two types of time for the whole of the working-age population, with a particular focus on the changes happening within couples. Over the last 25 years, women have spent more time on parenting, but they have spent significantly less time on house-keeping. This decrease primarily reflects changes in their habits, and to a lesser degree women's increased participation in the job market and changes in family structures. The decrease is most notable for women who spend the most time in the domestic arena. Men have implicated themselves more in their children's education; fathers who participate little, or not at all, are becoming increasingly rare. However, men's contribution to other household tasks remained stable. In 2010, women performed the majority of household and parenting tasks - 71% and 65% respectively. This unequal distribution shows resistance to more equal sharing of tasks. Within couples, domestic and parenting behaviour are positively linked, highlighting household requirements and educational preferences shared in common that go beyond social homogamy, as well as the declining specialisation of conjugal roles over time. The number of couples in which the man performs more of the household tasks increased, representing a quarter of couples in 2010.