France, social portrait 2022 edition
The social and fiscal reforms of 2020 and 2021 generated an increase in household disposable income, particularly for the upper half of the income distribution
Gabriel Buresi, Flore Cornuet (Insee), Jules Cornetet, Quynh-Chi Doan (Cnaf), Camille Dufour, Raphaël Trémoulu (Drees)
Once fully implemented, the new social and fiscal measures introduced in 2020 and 2021 generated a 1.1 per cent increase in the standard of living of people living in Metropolitan France, compared to a situation without their implementation. The average gain reached 280 euros per year and per person: 240 euros for the measures implemented in 2020 and 40 euros for those of 2021.
This increase mainly benefited the wealthiest half of the population, which was particularly affected by the main long-lasting reforms: the lowering of the income tax schedule and the phasing out of the housing tax. Almost 90% of the total increase in household disposable income were due to the long-lasting measures of 2020 and 2021. They generated an increase in standard of living of up to 470 euros per year on average for the 7th and 8th deciles and of 90 euros for the poorest half of the population.
The remaining 10% of the total increase in household disposable income were due to one-time, direct transfers to households implemented along the long-lasting reforms to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 crisis in 2020 and the rise in energy prices in 2021. They were the key factor that drove up the standard of living of the lowest quintile. The one-time, direct transfers of 2020 benefited more the low-income groups and allocated larger amounts than those of 2021.
Taken together, the 2020 and 2021 measures almost had a zero effect on the poverty rate (+0.1 point). Had the one-time direct transfers not occurred, the poverty rate would have increased by 0.3 point because of the long-lasting measures of 2020 and 2021.
Under the assumption of constant consumption behaviours, the 2020-tobacco tax increase reduced the standard of living by an average of 50 euros per year. This tax increase negatively affected every decile of standard of living but harmed relatively more the poorest deciles.
Paru le :26/01/2023