Économie et Statistique n° 423 Cultural and Sports Participation in France: Choices, Diversity, and Accumulation - Occupational Mobility and Life Cycle - Industry Concentration Patterns in the European Union: does the East Mirror the West?
Occupational Mobility and Life Cycle
Opportunities for career mobility differ by age and length of service in the organisation—two essential components of the working-life cycle. The propensity to change jobs declines throughout a working career, notably in the first ten years and after age 45. Over age 40, not changing positions for five years effectively becomes the norm. Taking up a job in a new organisation brings greater rewards in terms of pay and involves a lower risk of breaks in employment if the move occurs early in one’s career. By contrast, positive prospects for internal mobility range over a longer time frame, levelling off at around age 45. Overall, therefore, internal mobility proves to be more advantageous than external mobility. Employers play a significant role in mobility—in addition to promotions, which require their involvement—as they are partly responsible for more than four job changes in ten. As regards length of service, the chances of gaining from mobility rise in the medium term; after that, absent in-house opportunities, workers face a higher risk of mobility entailing breaks in employment. Women are more exposed to external mobility and far more vulnerable to breaks in employment; men experience more internal mobility opportunities, and more than half of those leaving their organisations are able to control their terms of departure. Women seem more constrained in their mobility because of less favourable terms of employment and extra-occupational reasons connected to family events or their spouses’ occupational mobility.