Population census

Sources
Dernière mise à jour le : 26/06/2017

Présentation de l'opération

Organisme producteur :

Insee. Direction des statistiques démographiques et sociales (DSDS)

Type d'opération :

Population census
Law n° 2002-276 of February 27, 2002 (articles 156 to 158) establishes the principles for conducting the census and disseminating the annual official population of every commune.
Council of State Decree n°2003-485, published in the Official Journal of June 8, 2003, defines the terms and conditions for the enforcement of the law. The decree of July 19, 2007 regulates the dissemination of the population census'results.
Population census is used to learn about France's diverse and changing population. It provides statistics on inhabitants and their characteristics: composition by sexe and age, occupation, housing conditions, means of transportation, commuting to work, commuting to study, etc.
The results are issues each year and are used:
- by the administrative and local authorities to tailor collective facilities: child care centres, hospitals, schools, sports facilities, transport, etc. and to develop local policies;
- by public and private professionals to improve knowledge of housing stock;
- by companies to have precise data in order to improve knowledge of potential customers or labour availabilities in a given geographical sector;
- by associations, especially those that deal with healthcare, social, educational and cultural fields, in order to better adjust their actions to the needs of the population.

Objectifs :

Law n° 2002-276 of February 27, 2002 (articles 156 to 158) establishes the principles for conducting the census and disseminating the annual official population of every commune.

Council of State Decree n°2003-485, published in the Official Journal of June 8, 2003, defines the terms and conditions for the enforcement of the law.

The breakdown decree defines the composition of the groups of rotation and determines the census survey years for each group.

The Order of July 19, 2007 establishes the framework for the dissemination of the population census results.

Population census is used to learn about France's diverse and changing population. It provides statistics on inhabitants and their characteristics: composition by sexe and age, occupation, housing conditions, means of transportation, commuting to work, commuting to study, etc.

Today, society changes fast and in order to have a better understanding of its changes, the census frequency has been changed: thanks to this new method, regular and recent information is produced every year.

The results are used:

- by the administrative and local authorities to tailor collective facilities: child care centres, hospitals, schools, sports facilities, transport, etc. and to develop local policies;

- by public and private professionals to improve knowledge of housing stock;

- by companies to have precise data in order to improve knowledge of potential customers or labour availabilities in a given geographical sector;

- by associations, especially those that deal with healthcare, social, educational and cultural fields, in order to better adjust their actions to the needs of the population.

Thèmes abordés :

The "housing form" questionnaire features 15 questions relating to the characteristics and comfort of the dwelling as well as the household composition. A specific housing form exists for the DOMs.
The "individual bulletin" questionnaire features 25 questions focusing on age, place of birth, nationality, level of qualifications, place of residence the year before and occupation. It applies to all the people normally living in the dwelling.

Champ de l'opération

Champ géographique :

The census covers France, excluding Mayotte, and the overseas collectivities of Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin, and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Mayotte and overseas communities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and the Wallis and Futuna Islands carry out general censuses every five years.

Caractéristiques techniques

Unité statistique enquêtée :

People residing in France, excluding Mayotte, and the overseas collectivities of Saint-Barthélemy, Saint-Martin and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

Périodicité de l'opération :

Census surveys are annual.
The census provides each year the results from the information collected during the five most recent annual surveys.

Période et mode de collecte :

The census is placed under State responsibility. The communes or the Public inter-municipal cooperation establishment prepare and conduct the census surveys and therefore receive a financial allowance from the State.
INSEE's mission is to organise the collection of the information and ensure the quality of the information collected. It gathers the information collected, processes the questionnaires and disseminates the results.
Since 2015, it is possible to be enumerated by internet: an enumerator recruited by the municipality or the Public inter-municipal cooperation establishment gives residents a notice with individual access codes. People can then fill in the online questionnaire. Then, the questionnaire is transmitted directly to the INSEE. The answer on paper questionnaire remains possible for people who can not answer through the internet. The enumerator deposits questionnaires and take them back when filled.
The data is collected in January and February (February and March in Reunion Island).

Historique :

Since 2004, the census is based on annual data collection, successively surveying all the municipal territories over a five-year period. This census, helbuilt on this method succeeds the general population censuses which 1999 was the last edition.
The first five census surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2008. They were used to produce the census results, dated 2006, i.e. the medium year.
Since that time, every year, census results are based on the five most recent annual surveys: discarding the information from the oldest survey and taking into account the one of the new survey.

Plan de sondage :

In this rolling census, every municipalities under the threshold of 10 000 inhabitants is surveyed once within a five year.
Municipalities with 10,000 inhabitants or more realize every year a sample survey with a sample of housing representing 8% of their population.
Thus, every year, the annual survey constitutes a sample of 14% of the total population living in France.
Over a 5-year period, all the inhabitants of municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants and 40% of the population of municipalities with 10,000 inhabitants or more have been taken into account in the census.

Méthodologie :

The information thus collected is reduced on the same date for all municipalities to ensure equal treatment between them and to get obtain good data reliability.
In municipalities with 10,000 inhabitants or more, this calculation is based on an exhaustive address control list (named "RIL"), which gives the number of households at each address.
In municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, the evolutions of the numbers of households according to the local residence tax (TH) files are used. 

Autres spécifications :

The population census is subject to main use and complementary use.The main operation provides results on the structure of the population, training and qualifications, travel and migration and the situation towards employment.
Its complementary use provides results on occupations and occupational categories, economic business sectors and households' family structure.
For municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, it covers 20% of households.
For municipalities with 10,000 inhabitants or more, complementary use covers all the bulletins collected  i.e. approximately 40% of households.In institutions, it covers one individual in four.

Voir aussi :