Men and women: equality under the microscope2017 Edition
Men and women: Equality under the microscope takes stock of today’s gender inequalities in France. This edition follows on from the publication in 2012 of Men and women – A view of gender equality.
It provides an overview of the pathways followed by men and women at different ages (education, family and professional life, retirement) and the resulting inequalities.
There are four reports providing in-depth analyses of different aspects of gender inequalities. The first describes recent progress made in France on female access to managerial and supervisory categories at the start of their working lives. The second is an inventory of the pension gap between men and women in retirement in Europe. The third report looks at male and female delinquency and differences in the way they are dealt with by the legal system in France. The last report covers stereotypes of the social roles of men and women.
Around thirty data sheets present key data and European comparisons, to complete this overview of men and women.
Gender pension gap: the situation in EuropeInsee Références - Edition 2017
Despite increased participation by women in the labour market and a reduction in the gender wage gap, in Europe women’s pensions are still substantially lower than men’s. In 2011 in all European Union countries, the average pension received by women aged 65 or over, irrespective of whether they were retired, was 47% less than that received by their male counterparts. This gap varies from country to country, and depends on whether men and women have the same rate of old age coverage (both public and private). Thus for those receiving an old age pension, the pension gap is reduced to 39% on average. In most European countries retirement schemes include corrective measures to adjust for the gender gap in resources for older men and women. These measures, which supplement direct entitlement pensions with family entitlements (linked to the number of children) or marital rights (reversionary pensions linked to marital status), help to reduce the gender pension gap. Lastly, compared with the relative gender gap in terms of pensions, the gap in standard of living is less pronounced. Standard of living takes into account the pooling of resources by couples, so that differences in standard of living between retired men and women are mainly due to pensioners living without their spouses, especially widows. All in all, in 2014 in the European Union, the average standard of living for women aged 65 or over was 87.6% of that for men and differences between countries were less marked than for the gender pension gap.