Men and women: equality under the microscope2017 Edition
Men and women: Equality under the microscope takes stock of today’s gender inequalities in France. This edition follows on from the publication in 2012 of Men and women – A view of gender equality.
It provides an overview of the pathways followed by men and women at different ages (education, family and professional life, retirement) and the resulting inequalities.
There are four reports providing in-depth analyses of different aspects of gender inequalities. The first describes recent progress made in France on female access to managerial and supervisory categories at the start of their working lives. The second is an inventory of the pension gap between men and women in retirement in Europe. The third report looks at male and female delinquency and differences in the way they are dealt with by the legal system in France. The last report covers stereotypes of the social roles of men and women.
Around thirty data sheets present key data and European comparisons, to complete this overview of men and women.
Male and female access to managerial positions at the start of their working life: convergence underway?Insee Références - Edition 2017
In 2013, for the first time, the proportion of young women occupying a managerial position three years after entering the workforce was virtually the same as for young men. Since 2001, women have also made progress in access to supervisory positions although they still lag behind their male counterparts. In addition, for all women managers and those exercising hierarchical responsibility, their working conditions and notably their wages have moved closer to those of men. Despite this, women managers are more exposed to part-time employment and fixed-term contracts and their professional space remains split, with the civil service accounting for twice as many workers as other areas. A key factor in women’s access to managerial posts is the significant increase in numbers of women in higher education and especially at the highest levels (master’s and PhD). The strengthening of the legislative apparatus in the 2000s promoting professional equality in enterprises undoubtedly also sustained this catch-up movement. This movement can also be seen to be affecting wages, but this is due to the substantial drop in the wages of young men (in constant euros) following the economic crisis of 2008-2009. However, the increase in the number of young women in managerial positions at the start of their working lives is still not commensurate with the scale of their educational investment. Compared with men who have the same characteristics and qualifications, women are still 30% less likely to become managers, irrespective of whether the position is linked with hierarchical responsibilities.