Économie et Statistique n° 444-445 : Land and agriculture, recent developments
Greenhouse-Gas Emissions Due to Agriculture and Land Use in France: A Spatial Analysis
We examine the spatial distribution of greenhouse-gas emissions due to agriculture and land use between 1993 and 2003 at the French département level. We begin by applying the method adopted in the national inventories to calculate emissions in each département due to the use of synthetic fertilizers, enteric fermentation, and livestock manure, as well as net emissions due to land use (such as farming, forestry, and conversions between different uses). We then analyze the breakdown of total net emissions by département and by category for the 1993-2003 period. The regions with high agricultural emissions are heavily concentrated in northern and north-west France, whereas the regions of south-east and eastern France are characterized by a net sink (negative emissions) due to significant land use. Our findings therefore indicate a clear divide between the regions in the east with negative total net emissions, regions in the north-west with significant net emissions, and regions along a north-east/south-west diagonal with intermediate levels of net emissions. This descriptive evidence is corroborated by a spatial exploratory analysis. We demonstrate a positive total spatial autocorrelation for each emission category and for total net emissions, over the entire period. By analyzing local spatial autocorrelation between emissions in each département, we can identify significant spatial groupings and atypical locations. Our analysis thus underscores the importance of the spatial dimension, particularly for defining public policies.