Économie et Statistique n° 383-384-385 - 2005Approaches to Poverty: the Test of International Comparisons
Work, inequality and for own consumption in Portugal
Portugal, long a country of emigration, has seen the number of immigrants outstrip the number of emigrants since the mid-1990s. Per capita GDP has been on the constant rise since the country entered the European Union, even though it was still the poorest Member State in 2000. The proportion of over-60s still at work is the highest in the Europe of 15. The unemployment rate, which was high in the mid-1990s, plunged to one of the lowest European levels in 2000. Portugal is also the most inegalitarian country in terms of income distribution. Farmers and sea fishermen are more vulnerable to monetary poverty than manual employees. Families whose head works in the service sector are less exposed to poverty in terms of living conditions than farm, fishing and industrial workers. For own consumption, when the housing situation so allows, provides greater flexibility of budgetary management and makes those with access to it less pessimistic in terms of subjective poverty.