Survey on Trajectories and Origins in 2019 


Paru le :Paru le10/12/2023

Présentation statistique

Data description

The « Trajectories and Origins 2 » (TeO2) survey makes it possible to establish national statistics on the diversity of populations in metropolitan France and to study how migratory origins influence the future of individuals.

It seeks to measure the impact of origins on access to the main goods that define each person's place in society: housing, education, language skills, employment, public services and social benefits, health, social and family relations, nationality, citizenship, etc.

To do this, it is essential to study the links between origins and other differentiating factors in French society, notably social background, gender, age, level of education, income and neighbourhood.

The TeO2 survey is a continuation of the first TeO1 survey, with some of the questionnaire's themes expanded (grandparents' origins, administrative history, reactions to discrimination, health, etc.) and new target populations (Chinese immigrants, immigrants from countries with many refugees, children of French nationals living abroad, etc.)

A complementary section of the survey is addressed to the grandchildren of immigrants of non-European origin (the 3rd generation) and is the subject of a separate quality report (TeO2-3G).

Classification system

INSEE and INED are co-producers of the Trajectories and Origins survey for its first and second editions (TeO1 2008-2009 and TeO2 2019-2020). Within this framework, the two institutes have constructed a nomenclature of countries and nationalities to enable researchers and public statisticians to conduct their work on immigration in France. This classification aims to provide relevant groupings from the point of view of migratory waves and socio-cultural profiles . In so doing, its implementation and dissemination beyond the TeO2 survey should allow for better comparability of results from one study to another.

Statistical concepts and definitions

The TeO2 survey, like the first edition, focuses on the social trajectories of individuals and on the analysis of integration processes. The questionnaire therefore focuses on individual trajectories and includes retrospective elements (educational, professional, family and residential trajectories). Particular attention is paid to the collection of the elements that make up the geographical, social, cultural or residential origin.

Each sphere of the respondent's life is examined in depth in a special module. With the exception of a minor change in the titles of the modules, their list is identical to that of the first survey. As in the 2008-2009 survey, the main themes covered are

  • the family and social environment (family environment, marital history, social relations),

  • access to the various resources of social life (education, housing, employment, health, civic life),

  • the different dimensions of origins and belonging (links with the country of origin, religion, languages, self-image and the way others see them).

The theme of discrimination is addressed in a cross-cutting manner in different modules. The grounds for discrimination recorded can be diverse: origin, but also gender, religion, disability, sexual orientation, place of residence, etc.

Compared to TeO1, developments have been made to allow new studies on all the themes of the questionnaire and in particular on the following subjects

  • the consequences of pre-migration characteristics on the socio-economic trajectories of migrants;

  • the impact of migrants' legal trajectories (administrative status) on their integration conditions;

  • the health behaviours of immigrant populations and their integration into the French health care system;

  • the social trajectories of the grandchildren of immigrants (the « third generation » ).

Statistical unit

Person living in ordinary housing

Statistical population

The survey is based on a sample of individuals aged 18 to 59 living in an ordinary household in metropolitan France at the time of the survey, with an over-representation of certain populations to ensure sufficient precision in the analyses.

Five sub-populations are distinguished :

• Immigrants (so-called «  first generation » persons);

• people born in an overseas department or region (Drom);

• people born in France with at least one immigrant parent (descendants of immigrants, who may also be called «  second generation » ) ;

• persons born in metropolitan France with at least one parent born in an overseas department or region;

• people who do not belong to any of the above groups («  majority population » ), some of whom have migratory ancestry and are of particular interest to the survey:

  • persons with at least one parent born French abroad, including in a colony (so-called « children of French abroad » );

  • the grandchildren of immigrants (known as « third generation » ), of European and non-European origin, for whom an effort must be made to over-represent them.

Regional extensions

not applicable

Time coverage

Varies by part of the questionnaire

Base period

not applicable


The first edition of the survey (TeO1) shed light on a large number of questions concerning the place of origin in the processes of integration, discrimination and identity construction within French society. It has been the subject of a large number of publications and scientific texts. Nearly 150 were listed at the end of 2015, including 52 articles in scientific journals, 3 books and 11 book chapters, 22 institutional publications (such as Insee Première, Population & Sociétés, Infos migrations, Dares Analyses, etc.), 49 working papers and 8 theses.

Since the survey data were made available on the Progedo-Quetelet network, nearly 220 requests for use have been made and validated, on a wide variety of subjects, including some from researchers in other European or North American countries.

The publication by INED of a collective work of more than 600 pages, which condenses the most important results of the survey, had a significant impact on the media. There were 25 press articles on the results of TeO1 at the time of the book's publication in the space of a month and a half between January and mid-February 2016.

The conduct of the survey itself did not raise any major difficulties. The collaboration between INSEE and INED was very productive, the implementation of the survey in the field went smoothly and the perception of the survey was very good, both by the interviewers and the respondents.