Insee
Informations rapides · 15 January 2021 · n° 011
Informations rapidesConsumer prices slowed down on average from 2019 to 2020Price Index – Annual average rates of change - year 2020

On average over the year, consumer prices slowed down in 2020 for the second consecutive year. The inflation was up by 0.5% after +1.1% in 2019 and +1.8% in 2018. Excluded tobacco, consumer prices were also less dynamic than in 2019: +0.2% in 2020 after +0.9% in 2019. The drop in inflation resulted, on the one hand, from a downturn in the prices of energy and on the other hand, from a slowdown in the prices of services and those of foods. Contrariwise, the lesser decline in the prices of manufactured goods and the acceleration in the prices of tobacco moderated the global decrease. Core inflation was slightly weaker, +0.6%, after +0.8% in 2019.

Informations rapides
No 011
Paru le : Paru le 15/01/2021
Warning

This document presents the annual average rates of change in the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) in 2020. The monthly and year-on-year rates of change in the CPI in December 2020 have been also published on January 15, 2021 in another « Informations rapides ». The annual average and the year-on-year rate of change are two different concepts: the annual average rate of change refers to the whole set of prices observed during one year compared with all those observed during the previous year. The year-on-year change refers to the prices observed during a particular month compared with those observed during the same month of the previous year.

The COVID-19 health crisis affected the quality of the March, April, May, June, November and December indices and impacted therefore the averaged measure of prices in 2020. The prices collected by INSEE collectors in physical outlets was adjourned from 16 March to 15 June 2020, and then from 30 October 2020 to 4 January 2021.The structure of household consumption has been modified by the crisis and some few products were unavailable for sale in 2020.

On average over the year, consumer prices slowed down in 2020 for the second consecutive year. The inflation was up by 0.5% after +1.1% in 2019 and +1.8% in 2018. Excluded tobacco, consumer prices were also less dynamic than in 2019: +0.2% in 2020 after +0.9% in 2019. The drop in inflation resulted, on the one hand, from a downturn in the prices of energy and on the other hand, from a slowdown in the prices of services and those of foods. Contrariwise, the lesser decline in the prices of manufactured goods and the acceleration in the prices of tobacco moderated the global decrease. Core inflation was slightly weaker, +0.6%, after +0.8% in 2019.

Annual average changes in consumer price index

2015:100
Annual average changes in consumer price index (2015:100)
Annual average rates of change
Items Weight 2020 2019 2020 From 2019 to 2020%
a) All households – France
Overall 10000 104.23 104.73 0.5
Food 1610 106.08 108.1 1.9
Fresh food 230 117.58 126.16 7.3
Other food 1380 104.22 105.27 1,0
Tobacco 205 129.84 147.58 13.7
Manufactured products 2491 98.17 97.95 -0.2
Clothing and footwear 380 99.95 99.42 -0.5
Medical products 412 90.15 88.35 -2,0
Other manufactured products 1699 99.73 99.98 0.3
Energy 808 115.33 108.34 -6.1
Petroleum products 439 120.45 106.18 -11.8
Services 4886 104.29 105.22 0.9
Actual rentals and services for dwellings 752 101.54 101.88 0.3
Health services 604 102.39 102.75 0.4
Transport 300 102.03 100.27 -1.7
Communication 215 96.42 97.39 1,0
Autres services 3015 106.26 107.75 1.4
Total except rents and tobacco 9185 103.98 104.18 0.2
Total except tobacco 9795 103.77 103.98 0.2
b) Urban working-class households or households of employees
All products excluding tobacco 9685 103.48 103.66 0.2
c) Households that belong to the lowest equivalized disposable income quintile - France
All products excluding tobacco 9678 103.34 103.41 0.1
  • Geographical coverage: France excluding Mayotte
  • Source: INSEE – Consumer Price indices

Downturn in energy prices and in transport service prices

In 2020, the energy prices fell back strongly (−6.1% on average after +1.9% in 2019) in the wake of those of petroleum products (−11.8% after +0.6%) impacted by the world sanitary crisis. The prices of natural and town gas fell back sharply (−11.3% after +2.4%) while those of electricity accelerated (+5.9% after +3.9%).

The prices of transport services also declined: −1.7% after +0.7%. The prices of airfares fell back: −4.4% after +0.9%, partly due to the decrease in the international airfares (−5.1% after +1.9%). The prices of passenger transport by rail accentuated their decrease: −5.3% after −0.3%. Contrariwise, the prices of passenger transport by road (+3.0% after +1.4%) and those of passenger transport by sea and inland waterway (+3.7% after +2.7%) accelerated in 2020.

Slight slowdown in the prices of services for dwellings and « other services »

In 2020, the prices of services for dwellings (actual rentals, supply of water and refuse collection fees) slowed down slightly: +0.3% on average, after +0.4% in 2019. The prices of actual rentals increased at the same rate as in 2019 (+0.4%). The prices of the other housing services – mainly supply of water and refuse collection fees – were more dynamic than in 2019 (+1.0% after +0.3%). The prices of thermic energy fell back significantly: −5.2 % after +0.6% in 2019.

The prices of « other services » slowed down: +1.4% on average, after +1.6% in 2019. In conjunction with the lockdown periods due to the sanitary crisis, the prices of accommodation services fell back (−0.4% after +1.6%) and those of recreational and cultural services decelerated (+0.9% after +1.7%). The prices of catering services increased by 1.3% as in 2019. The insurance prices were less dynamic (+0.7% after +1.6%) in the wake of the downturn of insurance connected with health prices (−0.2% after +1.4%). Contrariwise, the prices of social protection prices (child care services, retirement homes for elderly persons…) increased in 2020 (+2.0% after +1.7%).

Rebound in health service prices and communication service prices

The prices of health services increased in 2020: +0.4% after −0.1% in 2019. The prices of dental services rebounded (+0.9% after −0.9%), those of paramedical services were stable after −0.3 % in 2019 and those of medical services slowed down slightly (+0.5% after +0.6%).

The prices of communication services increased by 1.0% after −1.1% in 2019 in link with the rebound of wireless telephone services (+0.1% after −0.6%), those of internet access provision services (+1.6% after −4.7%) and those of bundled telecommunication services (+1.2% after −2.7%). The prices of postal services also rose: +6.9% after +6.6% in 2019.

Slowdown in food prices and increase in tobacco prices

In 2020, the food prices slowed down: +1.9% on average after +2.5%. The prices of fresh produces accelerated (+7.3% after +4.3%) in link with the increase in the fresh vegetables prices (+8.7% after +6.0%), the fresh fruits prices (+9.1% after +0.3%) and the fresh fish prices (+5.6% after +4.0%). Excluding fresh produces, food prices decelerated: +1.0% after +2.1% in the wake of those of bread and cereals (+0.6% after +1.5%), those of milk, cheese and eggs (+0.2% after +2.5%) and those of non-alcoholic beverages (stable in 2020 after +2.0%). The prices of meat increased slightly (+2.7% after +2.5%).

The tobacco prices rose in 2020: +13.7% on average after +10.6% in 2019, again due to a tax increase.

Lesser drop in manufactured product prices

In 2020, the prices of manufactured products declined by 0.2% after −0.6% in 2019. The prices of clothing and footwear decreased (−0.5% after −0.3%): those of clothing rebounded (+0.4% after −0.6%) while those of footwear fell significantly (−2.7% after +0.4%).

The prices of « other manufactured product » increased again (+0.3% after −0.1%). The prices of furniture and furnishings prices (+2.0% after +0.2%), those of games, toys and hobbies (stable in 2020 after −3.0%) and those of camper vans, caravans and trailers (+0.2% after −0.3%) grew. The prices of major household appliances declined less (−0.7% after −2.1%). The prices of newspapers, books and stationery (+1.5% after +2.3%), those of glassware, tableware and household utensils (+0.7% after +1.1%) and those of vehicles (+0.4% after +0.6%) slowed down in 2020.

Moreover, the prices of health products fell less strongly than in 2019 (−2.0% after −2.8%) in link with those of pharmaceutical products (−2.6% after −3.7%).

A more or less pronounced price increase according to households

According to their consumption structure, households were subject to a global inflation more or less pronounced but lower than in 2019. Thus, in 2020, the increase in prices was lower, in average, for households over 60 years of age (+0.4%). Furthermore, inflation was 0.2 points lower than the average for owners, and 0.1 points higher for renter households; the rents prices, which had a more important weight in the renter households consumption, changed slightly but other features in their consumption (tobacco, transport) explained these differences in inflation. Differences by standard of living, socio-professional category or family composition also existed, but they were less than 0.1 points compared to the average.

For further information

Next publication of annual average results: January 2022

Next publication of annual average results: January 2022


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