Consumer prices were stable in average from 2014 to 2015Price Index – Annual average rates of change - 2015

In average, consumer prices remained unchanged in 2015 after +0.5% in 2014 and +0.9% in 2013. This further slowdown in prices came mainly from the large drop in energy prices, in particular in prices of petroleum products. Prices of manufactured declined at the same pace than in 2014. These decreases were offset by the rise in service prices, although not as rapid than in 2014 and by a slight rebound in food prices driven up by fresh foodstuffs. Finally, the prices of tobacco slowed considerably in 2015.

This document presents the annual average rates of change of the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) in 2015. The monthly and year-on-year rates of change of the CPI in December 2015 have been also published on 13 January in another « Informations rapides ». The annual average and the year-on-year rate of change are two different concepts: the annual average rate of change refers to the whole set of prices observed during one year compared with all those observed during the previous year. The year-on-year change refers to the prices observed during a particular month compared with those observed during the same month of the previous year.

In average, consumer prices remained unchanged in 2015 after +0.5% in 2014 and +0.9% in 2013. This further slowdown in prices came mainly from the large drop in energy prices, in particular in prices of petroleum products. Prices of manufactured declined at the same pace than in 2014. These decreases were offset by the rise in service prices, although not as rapid than in 2014 and by a slight rebound in food prices driven up by fresh foodstuffs. Finally, the prices of tobacco slowed considerably in 2015.

Large decrease in energy prices

In 2015, energy prices went down sharply (−4.7%), more than in 2014 (−0.9%). Indeed, petroleum product prices fell even more steeply than in 2014 (−10.8% after −4.2%) in the wake of tumbling crude prices. On average over the year, prices of heating fuel were down by 17.4% in 2015 (after −6.7% in 2014) and those of motor fuel dropped by 9.8% (after −4.0% in 2014). Town gas prices also decreased in 2015 (−2.2% after −0.6% in 2014). Only electricity remained buoyant (+4.8% on average in 2015 after +5.7% in 2014).

Tableau1 – Annual average changes in consumer price index

1998: 100
Annual average changes in consumer price index
Annual average rates of change
Items weight 2015 2014 2015 From 2014 to 2015 (%)
a) All households – France
All items (00 E) 10000 127.85 127.90 0.0
FOOD (4000 E) 1662 131.82 132.41 0.4
Fresh foodstuffs (4001 E) 211 138.08 145.41 5.3
Food excluding fresh products (4002 E) 1451 130.91 130.59 −0.2
TOBACCO (4034 E) 199 258.30 259.16 0.3
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS (4003 E) 2584 100.16 99.24 −0.9
Clothing and footwear (4004 E) 437 107.48 106.50 −0.9
Medical products (4005 E) 427 78.51 75.78 −3.5
Other manufactured products (4006 E) 1720 103.84 103.55 −0.3
ENERGY (4007 E) 815 177.46 169.10 −4.7
Petroleum products (4008 E) 418 199.06 177.59 −10.8
SERVICES (4009 E) 4740 136.06 137.76 1.2
Actual rentals and services for dwellings (4010 E) 767 142.04 143.34 0.9
Medical services (4011 E) 568 122.26 122.81 0.4
Transport and communication services (4012 E) 510 96.37 97.41 1.1
Other services (4013 E) 2895 146.73 148.97 1.5
All items excluding rentals and tobacco (5000 E) 9192 125.29 125.28 0.0
All items excluding energy (4017 E) 9185 124.26 124.85 0.5
All items excluding tobacco (4018 E) 9801 125.94 125.98 0.0
  • Source: INSEE – Consumer Price indexes

Further decline in manufactured product prices

Over 2015 as a whole, the prices of the other manufactured products declined at the same pace as in 2014 (−0.9%), prices of all the principal consumption items decreased. Thus, prices of clothing and footwear dipped by 0,9% in 2015 after remaining almost unchanged in 2014. Health product prices fell more sharply in 2015 (−3.5% after −2.8% in 2014). By contrast, prices of other manufactured products decreased less (−0,3% after −0,6% in 2014), notably due to a lower fall in audio-visual, photographic and information processing equipment prices (−4.2% after −7.2% in 2014) and in household appliances (−1.5% after −2.2% in 2014) and also due to the recovery in prices of personal effects (+0.8% after −1.0% in 2014).

Prices of services for dwellings slowed again

Prices of housing service (actual rentals, supply of water and refuse collection fees) continued to slow down in 2015. On annual average, they grew by 0.9% in 2015 after +1.5% in 2014. Actual rentals, which for most of them are revalued in line with past evolutions of the CPI, slackened again in 2015 (+0.6% after +1.0% in 2014) as well as the prices of the other housing services — mainly supply of water and refuse collection fees (+1.5% in 2015 after +2.7% in 2014).

Prices of transport and communication services grew at the same pace in 2015 than in 2014

Overall, prices of transport and communication increased at the same pace in 2015 than in 2014 (+1.1%). Prices of postal services accelerated again (+8.9% after +4.1% in 2014) and those of telecommunications bounced back slightly (+0.6% after −0.1% in 2014). By contrast, prices of transport services slowed (+0.9% after +1.8% in 2014), due to a decrease in airfares (−0.6% in 2015) and in the combined passenger transports (−0.5% in 2015).

Rise of medical service prices remained moderate

In 2015, health service prices rose practically at the same pace than in 2014 (+0.4% after +0.3% in 2014). Doctor fees picked up slightly (+0.5% after +0.2% in 2014), those of dental services slowed down a little (+0.9% after +1.1% in 2014). Prices of paramedical services increased slightly (+0.2% after 0.0%).

Prices of the other services decelerated

The prices of the other services decelerated in 2015 (+1.5% after +2.2%). In 2014, they had been driven up by higher VAT rates. The slowdown was especially pronouced for prices of catering and accommodation services (+1.5% in 2015 after +2.8% in 2014) and for the services of maintenance and repair of the dwelling (+1.6% after +4.0% in 2014).

Slight rebound in food prices

In 2015, food prices increased by an average of 0.4% after a decline by 0.6% in 2014. This rise stemmed mainly from the rebound in fresh foodstuff prices (+5.3% after −4.1% in 2014). In particular, prices of fresh vegetables went up by 6.8% in 2015 (after −4.7% in 2014), those of fresh fruits by 4.8% (after −5.8% in 2014) and those of fresh fishes and seafoods grew by 3.1% (after +1.7% in 2014). Excluding fresh products, the food prices diminished slightly again in 2015 (−0.2% on average after −0.1% in 2014). Prices dropped sharply for homogenized baby food and dietary preparations (−6.7%), milk, cheese and eggs (−1.3%) and mineral waters (−1.1%). Furthermore, prices of meat and alcoholic beverages slowed significantly in 2015 while their prices had remained dynamic in 2014.