Enterprises in France2014 Edition
This new edition of the Enterprises in France issue from the “Insee Références” collection offers a comprehensive structural view of our productive system.
2012: a difficult year for enterprises, particularly the smallest
The value added of enterprises in the mainly market sectors increased slightly in 2012, by 0.5%. It declined for 40% of enterprises with 250 employees or more, 45% of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and 55% of microenterprises. In addition, the margin rate was down sharply in 2012 for all sectors and all sizes of legal units (- 1.2 points on average). This decrease was slightly more pronounced in median margin rates for microenterprises (- 2.0 points for microenterprises with employees), than for SMEs and enterprises with 250 employees or more (with respective declines of 1.5 and 1.2 points). Within the scope of microenterprises with employees, all sectors are affected by these decreases, transport a little less than the others and real estate and construction more. While overall investment declined, only enterprises with 250 employees or more maintained their rate of investment in 2012. Investment is still determined by a very small minority of enterprises: 0.7% of them were responsible for 85% of total investment, although over a million firms invested, in other words nearly one in two. Exports were even more concentrated: 0.09% of units were responsible for both 70% of exports and 30% of investment; they belong mainly to multinational groups. Economic and financial profitability contracted, more strongly for microenterprises with employees. The self-financing rate of larger units also declined, with a parallel increase in their debt ratios. However, a balanced balance sheet persisted for these larger units as for SMEs, with significant disparities.