Homeless in 2012 (People attending hosting services or meal distribution) (survey about )

Dernière mise à jour le : 12/05/2014

Présentation de l'opération

Organisme producteur :

Insee. Direction des statistiques démographiques et sociales

Type d'opération :


Objectifs :

The main objectives of the survey Homeless in 2012 are :

 - to describe the characteristics of the homeless people and the people without a fixed residence : the aim is to compare the homeless with the population living in an ordinary housing on topics such as health, employment, living standards ;

- to describe the difficulties of access to housing and the life trajectories that led people to the situation of  being homeless in order to identify the processes of exclusion ;

- to estimate the number of homeless people.

Thèmes abordés :

The topics covered in the questionnaire in 2012 are :
- The socio-demographic characteristics
- The use of services and the housing condition
- The living conditions ( depending on where the person sleeps : dormitory room or a room in a collective accommodation, an accommodation, a hotel, the street or another place that is not designed for human habitation)
- The residential stability and instability ; the residential course
- The search for housing
- The income and the financial difficulties
- The situation towards the labour market
- Education and professional experience
- The involvement in social life
- The health and social coverage ,
- Family and childhood
- The life events
- The use of services, the use of social aid.

Champ de l'opération

Champ géographique :

Conurbations  over 20 000 inhabitants in Metropolitan France.

Champ(s) statistique(s) couvert(s) :

Individuals ( French or non-French speaking ) attending hosting or catering services offered by organizations or associations for free or in exchange of a low participation for people in extreme precarity. The most important part of these individuals are homeless, but some people living in ordinary housing have been surveyed among those attending meal distribution services. More specifically, the selected field concerns people attending the following services :

- accommodation in an Accommodation and Social Reinsertion Centre or CHRS ( emergency, stabilization, Integration or other CHRS)
- emergency accommodation , stabilization or Integration (except in a CHRS)
- maternal centre, mother-and-child centre
- social hotel
- work communities ( including Emmaus )
-  accommodation in a temporary accommodation assistance structure
-  Health Care Stayover Centres (LHSS), healthcare beds
- home for young workers, for migrant workers, social residences (reserved for homeless by associations or by municipal centers for social work or CCAS)
- overnight reception centres without accommodation
- distributions of meals ( afternoon, evening or breakfast), indoors or outdoors 
-  day care, solidarity insertion space with breakfast or meal

Caractéristiques techniques

Unité statistique enquêtée :

The statistical unit is the provision of a service (meals or housing or night shelters) on a given day : it is a couple " provided service * day of survey ", which in practice is the investigation of recipients of these services on a given day.

Période et mode de collecte :

This operation is the reissue of the 2001 survey with some modifications in order to take account of developments and some improvements in the plan of help for the homeless. The scope of the 2012 survey was expanded compared to the survey 2001.

- Some services have been added :  they include especially services providing breakfasts.

- collection took place Monday to Saturday noon, Saturday evening and Sunday remaining excluded ;  the 2001 survey was carried out on weekdays except weekend.

- A self-administered questionnaire was introduced to take into account the increasing proportion of non-French speaking homeless people (translated in 14 languages : Persian, Pashto, Arabic, Armenian, Polish, Russian, Bulgarian, Albanian, English, Spanish, Rromani, Romanian, Serbian / Croatian, Mandarin). For French-speaking people, it is performed face to face with an interviewer on a paper questionnaire. Non-French-speaking people answer a four-page-self-administered questionnaire translated into 14 languages if they understand one of these languages.

Historique :

The 2001 survey was first conducted in Europe. The survey is part of continuity. The 2001 methodology was based on the analysis of experiments in the United States since the 80s ( Urban Institute ( 1987 ), Research Triangle Institute ( 1991), Board of the Census (1996)) and in France by INED ( in 1995, 1997 and 1998). The principle is to sample locations likely to host homeless and, in these places, to sample users (these are not necessarily homeless, and the questionnaire must establish their housing ( or non-housing) status.

Plan de sondage :

The sampling is a random 3-degrees sampling :
- Drawing of the conurbations
- Drawing of the visits : services x days
- Drawing of the users attending the service on the day of the planned visit.

- A random 80 conurbations with more than 20,000 inhabitants in 2006 was performed. All conurbations with more than 200,000 inhabitants were selected ; conurbations from 20 000 to less than 200 000 people were drawn in proportion to their population and accommodation capacity as measured in the file Finess.

- To achieve the drawing of services by days among the 80 conurbations with more than 20,000 inhabitants, a sampling frame is created. This services database of the scope of the survey was made after a pre-survey realised by a Regional Office and enriched by a telephone survey conducted by investigators in February / March 2011. This survey has enabled for all conurbations of the scope of the survey individuals to gather the information needed to draw visits : fine definition of services from the scope of the survey, average attendance, opening days, type of public welcomed.

- The draw of the users attending the service the day of the scheduled visit is made on site the even day of the visit with a drawing table at their disposal for each service. Four individuals are then interviewed face to face and a maximum of twelve meet a self-administered questionnaire.

Autres spécifications :

An individual is a known homeless if he has spent the night before the survey in an place which is unexpected for habitation (in that case, he is called homeless ), including night halts providing  a shelter ( warmth, coffee, etc. . ) but that are not equipped for sleeping, or in an housing service  (hotel or accommodation paid by an association, room or dormitory room in a collective accommodation hosting service,  places exceptionnally open in case of extremely cold weather).

Some people may not have their own housing and may be considered homeless as defined above : those who spent the night before the survey in a home, in a hospital, in a prison, in a squat, or those who have been hosted by an individual.

Ordinary housing is a housing defined by opposition to residence accommodation offering specific services (retirement homes, student residence, tourist residence, residence with social vocation, residence for persons with disabilities ... ).

Several categories of homeless people are not taken into account by the survey homeless 2012 :

- those who sleep in an unintended for housing place (the homeless) and who do use a meal distribution service or do not go to a place opened in the frame of the cold weather plan ;

- the homeless living in towns not provided with hosting services or meals distribution services or services open in the frame of the cold weather plan ;

- the homeless people living in towns with less than 20,000 inhabitants. However, 80 centers of 5 000 to 20 000 inhabitants were sampled using the method used for conurbations of more than 20,000 inhabitants ; these cities are in the scope of the pre-survey and the telephone survey of services, but not within the scope of the survey of individuals. The data collected in the telephone survey on these cities as well as the results of the INED survey will however enable to extrapolate the results of the survey of individuals in all conurbations of more than 5,000 inhabitants .

- non-French-speaking homeless people who speak languages not covered under the non-French-speaking questionnaire.