How does public transport change the development of cities? The example of the Île-de-France regional train network
The Île-de-France regional train network (RER) was set up in a context of significant development in the Paris suburbs. Following rapid growth during the two post-war decades, growth in Île-de-France population and employment slowed between the end of the 1960s and the end of the 1990s. At the same time, the demographic weight of Paris in the region declined, mainly in favour of the suburbs. Then during the 1990s, while the movement of population towards the suburbs slowed, the relocation of jobs continued. This study aims to determine the role of the RER in the growth of population and employment near the stations it serves. It is based on a comparison between certain municipalities connected to the RER and a sub-sample of similar municipalities served only by the commuter train network. The RER commuter train connection should have enabled a 13% increase in employment between 1975 and 1990 in the suburban municipalities connected to the new network and located less than 20 km from Paris. The number of enterprises followed the same momentum and increased by 10% over the same period. The number of residents with a higher education qualification increased slightly in tandem, without an increase in the overall population being noted in the municipalities served by the RER.