Progressivity of the French Tax System: Different Channels in 1990 and 2010
Using a microsimulation model (Ines), we simulate taxes paid and transfers received by each household in a representative sample of the French population in 2010, applying and comparing the fiscal legislation of 1990 and 2010. We simulate social security contributions, income and housing taxes, indirect taxes and social benefits, but we exclude taxes on wealth and business taxes. Overall, the progressivity of the tax-benefit system did not undergo a major shift between 1990 and 2010. This stems from two changes in opposite directions: on the one hand, income taxes and social benefits are less progressive in 2010 than in 1990 while; on the other hand, social security contributions are more progressive.