Research effort in the regions
Within the framework of the “Europe 2020” strategy, the European Union has set itself the target of investing at least 3% of gross domestic product (GDP) in research and development. In 2012, France was still below this target (2.2%). At the regional scale however, Midi-Pyrénées far exceeded this (4.8% of the regional GDP) and Île -de-France reached the target (3.0%). Franche-Comté and Rhône-Alpes were also very close to achieving it. In 2011, Midi-Pyrénées was the sixth European region in terms of research effort. In all regions in France, research was carried out primarily in enterprises. In general government, it was present in all regions, particularly through universities. Research jobs were concentrated in the large metropolitan areas to a greater extent than other jobs. Île-de-France hosted 40% of PhD students and a quarter of all students.