Nationalisation, privatisation, "respiration"


Dernière mise à jour le :27/11/2019


These terms refer to movements of companies between the public sector and the private sector.

When the State takes direct control of an enterprise, i.e. when it holds over 50% of its capital, we talk of nationalisation (cf. Law of 11/2/1982).

When the State loses direct control of an enterprise to the private sector, we talk of privatisation (cf. laws of 6/7/1986 and of 19/6/1993).

The acquisition or sale of all or part of the capital of (directly or indirectly owned) subsidiaries of public enterprises, causing public-sector enterprises to "enter" or "leave" the public sector, is known as "respiration".


The purpose of the change is to clarify the concept of enterprise (as defined in the Law on the Modernisation of the Economy) and to take into account the recommendations of the Cnis working group on the dissemination of structural business statistics.