# Definitions of population census concepts

Definitions of concepts : from “Access to water and electricity” to “Waste water disposal”.

Sources
Dernière mise à jour le : 07/02/2017

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Dwellings are classified as follows, according to whether there is a drinking water supply point inside the dwelling and whether there is electricity supply to at least one of its rooms :

• cold water only, electricity supply in the home ;
• cold water only, no electricity supply in the home ;
• hot water, electricity supply in the home ;
• hot water, no electricity supply in the home ;
• no water supply, electricity supply in the home ;
• no water supply, no electricity supply in the home ;

## Activity rate

The activity rate is the ratio between the labour force (occupied labour force and the unemployed) and the corresponding total population. It can be calculated for a class of individuals (women aged 25 to 29, for example).

## Age

Age is the amount of time passed since birth. It may be calculated according to two definitions :

• age by generation (or age reached in the year or age by difference in years) is the difference between the year when the information was collected and the year of birth ;
• age in years passed is the age reached on the previous birthday.

For example, on the date of 1st January 2006, an individual born on 10 October 1925 is 81 years old by age reached in the year and 80 years old if we consider age in years passed.

Henceforth, population census results are presented using the age reached on the previous birthday.

NB

The results of the population censuses for 1999 and earlier were presented using the age by generation.

Now and since 2004, when census data is compared, all ages are expressed in years passed.

## Apparent migration balance

The apparent migration balance is the difference between the number of people entering a given territory and the number of persons leaving a territory, over the period of time in question. This figure is obtained by calculating the difference between total population variation over the course of the time period under consideration and the natural increase.

## Average years living in the dwelling

The number of years is calculated from the year the person moved into the dwelling. For example, for individuals surveyed in 2005 and declaring that they moved in 2005, the number of years is 0; for those who declared 2004, the number of years is 1, etc.

If all the occupants present for the census did not arrive at the same time, the moving date corresponds to that of the person who arrived first. If that person has always lived in the residence, the moving year corresponds to his/her year of birth.

## Births

Statistics on births are taken from registry office declarations and concern births of live-born children. They are counted in the place of residence of the mother.

## Birth rate

The birth rate is the ratio between the number of live-born births in the year and the average total population of that year. It can be calculated over a period of several years but its value is always expressed on an annual basis.

## “Border” municipalities

The municipalities designated and coded as being border municipalities are those included in a list covering the following neighbouring countries: Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Monaco and Switzerland. Only those bordering countries that host a significant number of workers, pupils and students residing in France have been included. If the person surveyed does not indicate a place of work or study, as the case may be, or indicates a foreign municipality that does not belong to one of these border countries or is not included in the list of border municipalities, the place of work or study is corrected, allocating the workplace of a worker residing nearby or the place of study of a student residing nearby. This place of work or study is generally located in France. This information may therefore prove to be fragile.

## Child of the family

A child of the family is counted as being any person living in the same household as his or her parents, with whom they form a family, whatever their age, as long as the person does not have a partner or child living in the household (in which case they then form their own family in which they are the adult). The child of the family may be the child of both parents, of one of the parents, an adopted child, or a child under the guardianship of either parent. No age limit is set to be a child of the family. A grandson or granddaughter is not considered a "child of the family".

A couple whose children have all left the family home is counted among couples without children.

## Classification of professions and socioprofessional categories

The Classification of Professions and Socioprofessional Categories, or PCS, replaced the CSP (Classification of Socioprofessional Categories) in 1982. It classifies the population by a combination of profession (or former profession), hierarchical position and status (salaried employee or otherwise). It comprises three embedded levels of aggregation :

• socioprofessional groups (8 items);
• socioprofessional categories (24 and 42 items);
• professions (486 items).

This version currently in use (PCS-2003) has been in force since 1st January 2003. It groups together some professions between which the distinction had become obsolete and breaks others down to take account of the appearance of new professions or new functions that are transversal to different industrial activities.

At the 8, 24 and 42-item socioprofessional category (CS) levels, changes in relation to the 1999 census are not significant.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. This change may have an impact on the breakdown of the labour force in employment per socioprofessional category.

For farmers, the figures for CS 11, 12 and 13 (corresponding to small, medium and large farms, respectively) have been grouped together in CS 10 "Farmers", as this distinction between the three abovementioned socioprofessional categories requires information on farm surface area and that information is no longer available in the new population census

For the same reason, you are advised to group together the detailed professions with codes 111A, 121A and 131A (farmers on small, medium and large cereal and arable crop farms, respectively) in "Farmers on cereals and arable crop farms (all farm sizes)"; professions 111B, 121B and 131B (Vegetable gardeners and horticulturists on small, medium and large farms) in "Vegetable gardeners and horticulturists (all farm sizes)"; etc. Only "Agricultural contractors, 0 to 9 salaried employees”, "Independent foresters, 0 to 9 salaried employees" and "Fishermen and fish farmers, 0 to 9 salaried employees" may be kept as they are, as their professions are unrelated to land area.

## Community

A community is a group of residential premises falling under the same managing authority and whose residents share a common mode of living. The community population includes those people who live in the community, with the exception of those who live in company accommodation. Community categories are :

• medium- or long-stay services of public or private health establishments, medium- and long-stay social establishments, retirement homes, homes and social residences or their equivalent ;
• religious communities ;
• ilitary barracks, quarters, bases or camps or their equivalent ;
• establishments housing pupils or students, including military teaching establishments ;
• prison establishments ;
• short-term social establishments ;
• other communities.

NB

Henceforth, with the new census method, pupils having reached majority age and military personnel living in barracks accommodation without their families are now part of the community population. They are no longer attached to the household of their family and are therefore no longer part of the household population as was the case in previous population censuses. The characteristics of the population living in communities and the population of households may be affected by this change, in particular in certain places. For instance, if the boarding accommodation or barracks is not located in the same municipality as the family home, these people will be counted in a different place from that they were counted in for previous censuses. They are now counted in the place where the boarding accommodation or barracks is located, whereas they were counted previously in the place of their family home. For some places, in particular those municipalities with a boarding school or military facility with large numbers of occupants in relation to the population of the municipality itself, the quality of comparisons over time may be affected significantly.

## Couple within a household

In the census results, a couple is formed by a man and a woman aged 14 years or over, who share the same main residence and fulfil at least one of the following two criteria: they both declare that they are married or both declare that they live together as a couple. Couples by the terms of this definition are de facto couples and may be married or not. Within a household, a couple forms a family whether it has children or not.

NB

Since 2004, the question "Are you living together as a couple?" has been included in census surveys to gain a better insight into de facto couples.

## Death

Death statistics are based on declarations to Civil Registry Offices. Deaths are registered in the place of residence of the deceased.

## Dwelling

A dwelling is defined from the point of view of its use. It is a unit used for dwelling purposes and which is :

• separate, which is to say completely enclosed by walls and partitions, without communicating with another unit unless this is by means of the shared parts of the building (corridor, staircase, lobby, etc.);
• self-contained, which is to say with an entrance from which there is direct access to the outside or to the shared parts of the building, without having to go through another unit.

Dwellings are divided into four categories: main residence, second homes, occasional dwellings and vacant dwellings.

Mobile dwellings and dwelling units in communities (retirement homes, homes, religious communities, etc.) are not considered to be dwellings. Company accommodation is considered to be a dwelling, however.

## Employment

In the census, members of the labour force in employment may be counted in their place of residence or their place of work. In the place of residence, we speak of the labour force in employment. In the place of work reference is made to employment in the place of work or, more succinctly, employment.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. A part of the change in employment since 1999 may be linked to this modification.

## Employment conditions

The employment conditions of the labour force in employment are presented according to the status of the persons in question. For salaried workers they correspond to the type of contract or job. Among salaried workers, a distinction is made between :

• apprentices under contract ;
• persons placed by a temping agency ;
• State-aided jobs (employment solidarity contracts, youth employment contracts, employment initiative contracts, qualification contracts, etc.);
• paid interns (job placement internships and job training, etc.);
• fixed-term contracts (including short and seasonal contracts, etc.);
• civil servants (State, local, hospitals) and open-ended contracts (or jobs).

Among non-salaried workers, a distinction is made between self-employed persons, employers and home helps.

NB

Since 2004 and the introduction of the renovated population census, the wording of the questions on professional status has changed: there is no longer any explicit reference to “home help (salaried or otherwise)”, while a general question has been added about people helping another person without being paid for doing so. This may contribute to amplifying the sharp fall in the numbers in this category.

The new census also takes more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. This change may have an impact on the breakdown of the labour force in employment by employment conditions.

## Employment feminisation rate

The employment feminisation rate for a class of jobs is the share of the jobs in the class in question occupied by women.

## Employment rate

The employment rate of a class of individuals is the ratio of the number of individuals in the class who are in employment to the total number of individuals in the class. It can be calculated for the whole population of a country, but is usually restricted to the population of working age (generally defined, for the purposes of international comparison, as persons of between 15 and 64 years of age), or to a sub-category of the population of working age (women aged 25 to 29 years, for example).

## Enrolment rate (or proportion of the population in schooling)

The enrolment rate is the percentage of young people of a given school age who are schooled, against the total population of the same age.

## Family

A family is the part of a household comprising at least two people and formed :

• either by a couple (two people of different sexes, married or not), with or without their children belonging to the same household ;
• or one adult with one or several children belonging to the same household (one-parent family).

For a person to be a child of the family, they must be single and not have a spouse or child belonging to the same household (see definition of the child of the family).

A household may contain zero, one or several families. Within a household, an individual may either belong to one family, and only one, or belong to no family at all.

## Household

A household for the purposes of the census refers to all the people sharing the same main residence, without those people necessarily being related to each other. A household may comprise a single person. The number of households is equal to the number of main residences.

Persons living in mobile accommodation, boatmen, the homeless and persons living in a community (workers in a home, retirement homes, university halls of residence, remand centres, etc.) are considered as not living in a household.

NB

Since 2004, the allocation of certain categories of the population living in a community and also having a family residence has been changed from that in the 1999 census. This mainly concerns adult pupils and students in boarding facilities and military personnel lodged in barracks but also having a personal residence. They are now counted in their community and therefore in the non-household population of the municipality where the establishment is located. Previously they were attached to their family residence and therefore counted in the household population of the municipality of their family residence.

Conversely, minors who are students lodged in university halls of residence are attached to their family residence and therefore in the household population, whereas they were counted in their community until 1999. They represent a very small number of people, much less than that of adults in boarding facilities.

## Household population

The household population covers all persons who share the same main residence, without these people necessarily being blood-related. It does not cover persons living in mobile accommodation, boatmen, the homeless and persons living in a community (workers in a home, retirement homes, university halls of residence, remand centres, etc.).

NB

Since 2004 and the renovated census, adult pupils or students living in boarding facilities and military personnel living in barracks without their family are no longer part of the household population as they are no longer attached to the household of their family, as was the case in previous population censuses. These changes may explain part of the trends since 1999.

## Household size (number of persons in the dwelling)

The size of a household is equal to the number of people that compose it, meaning the number of occupants of the main residence. Households can be broken down according to their size (expressed in integers), and an average household size can also be calculated (expressed with a decimal) for a group of households, for example those within a geographical zone.

NB

For the census, minors lodged elsewhere for their studies and spouses with another home for professional purposes are included in the household.

The scope of households changed slightly between the 1999 and 2004 census. The difference concerns :

• as of 2004, minors who are pupils living in a university hall of residence are counted in the dwelling of their parents, unlike in the 1999 census when they are counted in the communities of the municipality in which their university residence was located ;
• adult students in boarding facilities (agricultural colleges, military schools...) are no longer counted as of 2004 in the home of their parents, but in the communities of the municipality in which their boarding accommodation is located ;
• adults accommodated in military establishments (excluding education) and also having a personal residence are no longer counted in the municipality of their personal residence (as was the case in the 1999 census) but in the municipality of the military establishment. This change results in counting more one-parent families.

## Housing category

Housing is divided into four categories :

• main residences: housing occupied on a principal and usual basis by one or several people who form a household. The number of main residences is therefore equal to the number of households ;
• occasional dwellings: a dwelling or self-contained room used occasionally for professional purposes (for example, the professional pied-à-terre of a person who returns home to his or her family at weekends only);
• second homes: accommodation used for weekends, leisure or holidays, including furnished accommodation rented (or for rent) for tourism purposes ;
• vacant dwellings: unoccupied dwellings corresponding to one of the following cases :
• for sale or to let,
• already attributed to a buyer or a tenant and awaiting occupation,
• pending succession settlements,
• kept by an employer for future use by one of their employees,
• kept vacant and without specific attribution by the owner (e.g. a run-down property, etc..).

The distinction between occasional housing and second homes is sometimes hard to establish and the two categories are therefore often grouped together.

## Housing occupancy status

Occupancy status defines the legal situations of households concerning the occupancy of their main residence. Three main statuses can be distinguished :

• the status of owner applies to households who are owners, co-owners or becoming owners ;
• the status of tenant and/or sub-tenant applies to households paying a rent, irrespective of the type of accommodation occupied (accommodation rented with or without furnishings, a hotel room if it is the main residence of the household) ;
• the status of free lodger applies to households which are not owners and which do not pay any rent (e.g. People lodged free of charge by their parents, friends or employer, etc.).

NB

Since 2004 and the renovated census, those households who were life tenants in their main residence (by inter vivos distribution, for example) have been considered owners. They were previously considered as being lodged free of charge in previous censuses.

## Housing space

The notion adopted is that of the living space including corridors, kitchen, bathroom and WC. However, balconies, terraces, verandas, cellars, car parks, attics and any rooms for professional use exclusively are not included.

## Immigrant

Under the terms of the definition adopted by the High Council for Integration, an immigrant is a person who is born a foreigner and abroad, and resides in France. Persons who were born abroad and of French nationality and live in France are therefore not counted.

Certain immigrants may have become French while others remain foreign. The foreign and immigrant populations are therefore not quite the same: an immigrant is not necessarily foreign and certain foreigners were born in France (mainly minors). Immigrant status is permanent: an individual will continue to belong to the immigrant population even if they acquire French nationality. It is the country of birth, and not nationality at birth, that defines the geographical origin of an immigrant.

## Labour Force

The labour force includes those persons of working age in employment and the unemployed. The labour force does not include those persons who declare themselves to be unemployed but state that they are not looking for work.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. A part of the change since 1999 in the labour force in employment may be linked to this change. In addition to this, young people on military service (when this status existed) formed a separate category of the labour force by convention.

## Labour Force in employment (or occupied labour force)

For the purposes of the census, the labour force in employment (or occupied labour force) comprises those persons who declare themselves to be in one of the following situations :

• Exercise a profession (salaried or otherwise), even part-time ;
• help a member of their family in their work (even unpaid) ;
• apprentices, paid interns;
• registered as unemployed but have a limited professional activity ;
• students or retired but occupy a job.

The labour force in employment may be counted in the place of work or the place of residence.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. A part of the change since 1999 in the labour force in employment may be linked to this change, notably as regards persons under the age of 25 years or over the age of 55.

## Legal marital status

Legal marital status means a person’s marital status in the eyes of the law: single, married, widow(er), divorced. In census surveys, legal marital status corresponds to that declared by the person and may sometimes be different from their actual legal status. Living together or a Civil Solidarity Pact (PACS) are not a legal marital status.

NB

All persons under the age of 14 are considered to be single

## Lift access

This information is collected for each dwelling, whether it is in a collective building or not. A dwelling in a collective building with a lift may have been declared by its occupants as not being served by a lift (dwellings located on the ground floor or a mezzanine floor).

NB

In the 1999 census, this information was also available for the building as a whole. The disappearance of this information since 2004 may go some way towards explaining the trends since 1999.

## Living as a couple

The quantification of persons living together as a couple is based on the declaration made by each person in the census questionnaire, without reference being made to whether they are living together in the same main residence, to the family structure of the household to which the person belongs or to their legal marital status. Living as couple as defined here does not have any systematic link with the notion of "couple" used to identify and characterise families.

NB

Since 2004, the question "Are you living together as a couple?" has been included in census surveys to provide a better insight into de facto couples. The determination of the couples within a household is based on the answer to this question and on the declared marital status, but also involves other criteria, notably that the people must be of different sexes and share the same main residence.

## Main family

In a household containing at least one family, the main family is that to which the reference person of the household belongs. Any other family there might be is referred to as a secondary family

## Main fuel of the dwelling (Metropolitan France)

The main fuel used to heat the home may be :

• urban heating ;
• mains gas ;
• fuel oil ;
• electricity ;
• gas cylinder or tank ;
• other.

## Main Residence

A main residence is accommodation usually occupied as the main home by one or several people who form a household. The number of main residences is equal to the number of households.

## Mode of transport

This is the main type of transport used by those persons in employment to go to work.

## Mortality rate

The mortality rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in the year to the average total population of the year in question. It can be calculated over a period of several years but its value is always expressed on an annual basis.

## Nationality

The population is broken down into two broad groups: French / Foreigners.

A distinction is made among French nationals between :

• French nationals by birth (including by reinstatement) ;
• French nationals by acquisition (persons who have become French by naturalisation, marriage, declaration or on reaching adulthood).

The foreign population is defined according to a nationality criterion: any person residing in France who does not possess French nationality is foreign. Foreigners may acquire French nationality in the course of their life, according to the possibilities provided by the legislation. They then become French by acquisition.

Of the foreigners in France at the time of the census, only those having their permanent residence in France and those working or studying there (permanent workers, interns, students and their families if applicable) are counted, to the exclusion of seasonal workers and cross-border workers.

In addition, the foreign personnel (administrative, technical or service staff) of Embassies are counted, but not foreign members of the diplomatic corps. Neither tourists nor persons on short stays in France are counted in the census.

## Natural increase

The natural increase (or natural population surplus) is the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths recorded over a period. The words “surplus” or “increase” are justified by the fact that in general the number of births is greater than that of deaths. The opposite can happen whereupon the natural increase becomes negative.

## Number of cars

This includes all the cars at the disposal of the inhabitants of the main residence (household), except those for professional use exclusively.

## Number of rooms

This covers rooms used for dwelling (including the kitchen if its surface area exceeds 12 m2), as well as annexe rooms that are not set aside for third parties (service rooms, etc.). Rooms used exclusively for professional purposes are not counted, nor are hallways, corridors, bathrooms, etc.

## Part time / full time

The breakdown of the labour force in employment according to whether they hold a part-time or full-time job is performed on the basis of the declarations of the people concerned.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. This change may have an impact on the breakdown of the labour force in employment according to their working hours.

## Period in which construction was completed - Provisionally unavailable

The period of interest here is the period in which construction was completed on the house or building in which the accommodation is located, as declared by the occupants in the population census survey. If different parts of the building date from different periods, respondents should give the period in which the largest inhabited section was completed.

NB

In the 1999 census, a consistency check was conducted of the period in which construction was completed on the various dwellings in a given building. The lack of information about the building means that this check can no longer be conducted.

On account of data collection being spread over five years, observations of buildings completed in the course of this five-year period are partial only.

## Place of residence 5 years previously – Provisionally unavailable

This is the place of residence 5 years before the census survey. The people concerned are therefore those aged 5 years or more on 1st January of the year of the survey. Among these people, a distinction is made between those who lived :

• in the same dwelling ;
• in another dwelling in the same municipality ;
• in another municipality.

By convention, the homeless, boatmen, persons living in mobile dwellings and persons in remand centres are considered as having had another dwelling in the municipality in which they are counted as their place of residence five years previously.

NB

Since 2004 and the introduction of the renovated census, children under the age of five are not included in the population likely to have migrated as they were not born on the reference date taken into account for determining the previous place of residence. In the previous censuses, they were allocated the previous place of residence of the mother of the family, the father of the family of the reference person of the household, as appropriate.

## Place of study

The place of study corresponds to the location of the education establishment where a person is enrolled for study. To summarise the information on commuting between home and the place of study, the following categories of place of study are used :

• municipality of residence;
• another municipality of the department of residence ;
• another department of the region of residence;
• another region in Metropolitan France
• other (Overseas Department, Overseas Territorial Authority, abroad).

NB

Since 2004, with the renovated census :

• minors who are pupils living in a university hall of residence are counted in the dwelling of their parents, unlike in the 1999 census when they were counted in the communities of the municipality in which their university residence was located ;
• minors who are pupils living in a boarding facility are counted in the place of residence of their parents, as in the 1999 census ;
• adult pupils or students living in university halls of residence are counted in the communities of the municipality where their hall of residence is located, as in the 1999 census ;
• adult pupils or students living in a boarding facility (agricultural school, military school...) are counted in the place where their boarding facility is located, unlike in the 1999 census when they were counted in the place of residence of their parents.

## Place of work

The place of work is the geographical zone in which a person exercises his or her professional activity.

Certain workers, performing certain specific jobs such as “haulage driver”, “taxi driver” “travelling salesman”, “door-to-door salesman” or “fisherman” which require them to travel for work purposes with a certain regularity, are considered by convention as working in their municipality of residence.

## Population

The population figures that are presented correspond to all the persons having their main residence in the territory in question.

The population of the said territory comprises :

• the population of main residences (or household population) ;
• the population of people living in communities ;
• the population of mobile dwellings, homeless and boatmen attached to the territory in question.

Since 2004, for a territory defined by administrative zoning, this corresponds to the municipal population of the territory in question, subject to any rounding off of figures. The concept of municipal population is defined by Decree n° 2003-485 published in the Official Journal of 8 June 2003 on the population census.

NB

Since 2004 and the renovated census, the concept of population has been modified slightly. Adult pupils and students living in boarding facilities and military personnel living in barracks while also having a personal residence are now counted in the community population of the municipality in which their establishment is located. Previously, they were attached to their family residence and therefore counted in the household population of the municipality of their family residence.

These changes can have two types of consequences :

• locally, and especially in municipalities which have such establishments, they can explain a part of the change in the population. Nationally, they have no impact on the statistical population ;
• they result in a transfer from the household population to the community population, but subject to some exceptions, their impact is of secondary significance as the numbers concerned are low.

## Population not in education

This includes all persons not registered with an education establishment.

## In-school population

All individuals enrolled in an education establishment (including apprenticeships) for the current school year at the time of census data collection are considered part of the in-school population.

NB

Since 2004, with the renovated census :

• minors who are pupils living in a university hall of residence are counted in the dwelling of their parents, unlike in the 1999 census when they were counted in the communities of the municipality in which their university residence was located ;
• minors who are pupils living in a boarding facility are counted in the place of residence of their parents, as in the 1999 census;
• adult pupils or students living in university halls of residence are counted in the communities of the municipality where their hall of residence is located, as in the 1999 census ;
• adult pupils or students living in a boarding facility (agricultural school, military school...) are counted in the place where their boarding facility is located, unlike in the 1999 census when they were counted in the place of residence of their parents.

## Powered two-wheel vehicles (Overseas Departments)

These are all the powered two-wheel vehicles at the disposal of the persons living in the dwelling, except for those for professional use only.

NB

In 1999, there was no such exclusion.

## Professional status

The notion of professional status applies to the labour force in employment and makes a distinction between salaried and non-salaried workers. Salaried workers include private-sector employees, those of the civil service (State, local authorities, hospitals) and those of public or national companies and the social security. Non-salaried workers include freelancers and the self-employed, salaried corporate managers, CEOs or directors with a minority shareholding in limited-liability companies, and persons helping another person in their work without being paid (the latter are usually those who help a member of their family who is self-employed, without receiving a wage: farmers, craftsmen, shopkeepers, industrialists, the professions).

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. This change may have an impact on the breakdown of the labour force in employment according to their professional status.

Private-sector employees are grouped together with those of the civil service, as it had often become difficult to distinguish between the two due to changes in the status of certain State-owned companies.

Since 2004 and the introduction of the renovated population census, the wording of the questions on home helps has changed: there is no longer any explicit reference to “home help”, while a general question has been added about people helping another person without being paid for doing so. This may contribute to amplifying the sharp fall in the numbers in this category.

## Qualification

The census results refer to the highest qualification individuals state they have. The qualification categories that are used are as follows :

• no qualification :
• no schooling,
• schooling to primary or lower secondary level,
• schooling beyond lower secondary level;
• primary studies certificate (CEP) ;
• BEPC, lower secondary education diploma;
• CAP or BEP vocational qualifications :
• CAP, apprenticeship qualification,
• BEP ;
• baccalaureat, vocational diploma :
• general baccalaureat, higher vocational diploma,
• technological or vocational baccalaureat, vocational or technical diploma, agricultural diploma (BEA), commercial diploma (BEC), industrial diploma (BEI), hotel and catering school diploma (BEH), law school admission diploma ;
• short tertiary education qualification:
• general university studies diploma, higher vocational diploma (BTS), university technology diploma (DUT), welfare and health professions diploma, nursing diploma ;
• long tertiary education qualification :
• degree or postgraduate degree (including medicine, pharmacy, dentistry), engineering school diploma, Grande Ecole diploma, PhD, etc.

## Reference person of the family

If the family comprises a couple, the reference person of the family is the man in the couple. In the case of one-parent families, it is the parent.

## Reference person of the household

The reference person of the household is determined on the basis of the family structure of the household and the characteristics of the individuals comprising it.

a) In the main processing of the population census, the reference person of the household is automatically determined by means of a rule which only takes account of the three oldest persons in the household (ranked from oldest to youngest) and which considers their potential relationships :

• if the household contains one person, that person is the reference person ;
• if the household contains two persons: if they are of different sex and identified as forming a couple, the man is the reference person ; otherwise the reference person is the oldest person of working age, or if nobody is of working age, the oldest person.
• if the household contains three persons or more : if a couple formed by a man and by a woman is identified, the man of the couple is the reference person; otherwise the reference person is the oldest person of working age, or if nobody is of working age, the oldest person.

b) In complementary processing of the population census, knowledge of the family ties within households serves to define the reference person of the household more precisely than in main processing. The rule for determining the reference person of the household is the following :

• if the household contains one or several families, including at least one couple, the reference person is the oldest man of working age or, failing this, the oldest man ;
• if the household does not contain a couple but does contain at least one one-parent family, the reference person is the oldest parent of working age in a one-parent family or, failing this, the oldest ;
• if the household does not contain any families, the reference person is, excluding any paying guests or live-in employees, the oldest person of working age or, failing this, the oldest person.

## Reserved parking space

A reserved parking space (garage, indoor parking or car park space) is for the personal use of the household.

## Sanitary Facilities (Metropolitan France)

Dwellings are classified in three categories according to their sanitary facilities :

• neither bath nor shower ;
• bath or shower in a room not reserved for personal hygiene ;
• bathroom(s) (with shower or bath)

## Sanitary Facilities (Overseas Departments)

Dwellings are classified according to whether they have :

• an inside toilet ;
• a bath or shower installed in the dwelling and for the sole use of its occupants.

## Sector of activity

A sector of activity groups together manufacturing, commercial and service-sector companies that share the same main activity. This main activity is assessed on the basis of the classification of economic activities. The aggregated classification, NA 2008, replaced the compound economic classification (NES) on the occasion of the switch to NAF rev. 2.

This aggregate classification contains two "standard" levels (sections and divisions in 21 and 88 items respectively) which are now shared with the ISIC international classification, the European NACE rev. 2 and the French classification NAF rev. 2. Additional grouping levels are required, however, to meet the needs of compound data for economic analysis and publication.

The NA therefore comprises seven aggregation levels with 10, 17, 21, 38, 64, 88 and 129 items respectively.

## Type of Activity

The type of activity divides the population between the labour force and inactive persons. Among those in the labour force, a distinction is made between those in employment (including persons on apprenticeships or ion paid internships), also referred to as the occupied labour force, and the unemployed. Among those who are inactive, a distinction may be made between pupils, students, unpaid interns, retirees and those in pre-retirement and housewives or husbands.

NB

Since 2004, the census has taken more effective account of those persons in the labour force in employment, even in occasional or short-term employment, who are also students, retired or unemployed. A part of the change since 1999 in the labour force in employment may be linked to this change. In addition to this, young people on military service (when this status existed) formed a separate category of the labour force by convention.

The definition of unemployment for the purposes of the population census is different from those of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and of Pôle Emploi.

Census unemployment is higher than ILO-definition unemployment because persons who are not working sometimes declare that they are unemployed when they do not fulfil all the ILO criteria. You are therefore advised to think in terms of structure or relative positioning, whether you are analysing data for a given date or a trend.

## Type of cohabitation

The breakdown of the population by type of cohabitation only concerns those individuals belonging to a household (household population). It is based mainly on their situation in relation to any families (within the meaning of the population census) comprising the household they belong to. The population of households is thus broken down into the following categories :

• children of a family :
• children of a couple,
• children of a one-parent family,
• adults in a couple without children,
• adults in a couple with a child / children,
• adults in a one-parent family,
• persons not belonging to a family :
• persons living in a household of several people,
• persons living alone.

## Type of construction (Overseas Departments)

The type of construction is specific to French Overseas Departments. It categorises dwellings according to the following types :

• temporary housing ;
• wood houses or buildings ;
• stone or brick houses or buildings.

## Type of dwelling

The type of dwelling breaks dwellings down into the following categories :

• houses ;
• apartments ;
• other dwellings: accommodation in homes, hotel rooms, makeshift dwellings, self-contained rooms.

## Type of Family

Families may be classified according to whether they comprise a couple or are a one-parent family. The following categories, which also take account of the individual characteristics of the family members, are used:

• one-parent family formed by a man and his child(ren):
• in which the man is in the occupied labour force,
• in which the man is not in the occupied labour force,
• one-parent family formed by a woman and her child(ren)
• in which the woman is in the occupied labour force,
• in which the woman is not in the occupied labour force,
• couple without children:
• couple in which the man and the woman are both in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which only the man is in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which only the woman is in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which neither the man or woman is in the occupied labour force,
• couple with child(ren):
• couple in which the man and the woman are both in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which only the man is in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which only the woman is in the occupied labour force,
• couple in which neither the man or woman is in the occupied labour force,

## Type of heating (Metropolitan France)

The following categories are used to classify the main type of heating of the home :

• collective central heating (for the whole or the majority of the building, for a group of buildings or from an urban heating company);
• individual central heating (specific boiler for the home);
• individual “all-electric” heating;
• other :
• stove, fireplace, domestic range...

## Type of household

Households are classified in the following categories according to the family and individual characteristics of the persons in them:

• one-person household :
• man living alone,
• woman living alone,
• household of several people not containing a family ;
• household with family, in which the main family is a one-parent family:
• main family formed by a man and his child(ren),
• main family formed by a woman and her child(ren),
• household with family, in which the main family is a couple :
• couple of the main family in which the man and the woman are both in the occupied labour force,
• couple of the main family in which only the man is in the occupied labour force,
• couple of the main family in which only the woman is in the occupied labour force,
• couple of the main family in which neither the man or woman is in the occupied labour force.

NB

For the census, minors lodged elsewhere for their studies and spouses with another home for professional purposes are included in the household.

The scope of households changed slightly between the 1999 and 2004 census :

• minors who are pupils living in a university hall of residence are counted in the dwelling of their parents, unlike in the 1999 census when they are counted in the communities of the municipality in which their university residence was located;
• minors who are pupils living in a boarding facility are counted in the place of residence of their parents, as in the 1999 census ;
• adult pupils or students living in university halls of residence are counted in the communities of the municipality where their hall of residence is located, as in the 1999 census ;
• adult pupils or students living in a boarding facility (agricultural school, military school..) are counted in the place where their boarding facility is located, unlike in the 1999 census when they were counted in the place of residence of their parents ;
• adults accommodated in military establishments (excluding education) and also having a personal residence are no longer counted in the municipality of their personal residence (as was the case in the 1999 census) but in the municipality of the military establishment. This change results in counting more one-parent families.

## Unemployed person

For the purposes of the population census, unemployed persons are persons aged 15 or over who declared themselves to be unemployed (either registered or not with Pôle Emploi) unless they have also explicitly declared that they were not looking for work.

NB

The definition of unemployment for the purposes of the population census is different from those used by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and Pôle Emploi.

Census unemployment is higher than ILO-definition unemployment because persons who are not working sometimes declare that they are unemployed when they do not fulfil all ILO criteria. You are therefore advised to think in terms of structure or relative positioning, whether you are analysing data for a given date or a trend.

## Unemployed rate

The unemployment rate of a class of individuals is the ratio between the number of unemployed persons in that class and the labour force in the class (occupied labour force and the unemployed).

NB

The unemployment rate of a class of individuals is the ratio between the number of unemployed persons in that class and the labour force in the class (occupied labour force and the unemployed).

Census unemployment is higher than ILO-definition unemployment because persons who are not working sometimes declare that they are unemployed when they do not fulfil all the ILO criteria. You are therefore advised to think in terms of structure or relative positioning, whether you are analysing data for a given date or a trend.

## Waste water disposal (Overseas Departments)

The categories of waste water disposal are the following:

• connected to a sewer system ;
• connected to a septic tank ;
• connected to a catchpit ;
• discharged on the ground.

A sewer system connection is via a pipe connected to a sewer. Open-air discharge cannot be classified in this category. Likewise, a septic tank or catchpit is not a sewer system.